IIIDDLESEROUGH, the center of the n. of England iron manufacture, is an important market t., port, and parliamentary borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, at the mouth of the Tees, 48 nt. h.e. from York, returning one member to parliaplent. The town is of recent growth, and owes its origiti as a-port to its eonVement position for the shipment of coals brought down by railway- from the mines in South Durham. In 1842. a commodious dock was eonstructe4, which has recently been very considerably enlarged, and will admit ships of the largest tonnage.
On the discovery, ill 1840, of immense beds of ironstone, extending throughout the whole range of the Cleveland hills, a portion of which lies close to the town, the s-raelt ing of iron was speedily embarked in ou an extensive scale, which has since increased to a marvelous extent, to which has been added iron-foundries, the manufacture of rails, loconiotive engines, tubes, boilers, etc.; cheruical works, potteries, and ship-building are also,carried on to a large extent. The town of Middlesbrough was incorporated in 1853,
and constituted a parliamentary borough in 1868. is well built, and some of the streets present handsome specimens of architecture. / The royal exchange, built in 1867, is a large and handsome building; within its spacious interior the weekly iron-market is held on Tuesdays, and is attended by parties connected with the iron trade from all parts of the kingdom, as well as foreigners. There are five churches of the national establishment, and numerous places of worship connected with the various religious denominations. Albert park, containing 72 acres, is tastefully laid out.
At the census taken in 1831 Middlesbrough was an obscure hamlet with 383 inhabit ants; in 1871 the parliamentary borough contained a pop. of 46,643, and in 1874 it was estimated at upwards of 60,000.