LONGSTREET, JAMES, b. S. C., 1820; appointed to the military academy from Ala. barna, and after his graduation in 1842 stationed at various points on the Texan frontier until the breaking out of the Mexican war, in which lie served with distinction, and was brevetted successively captain and nutjor for gallantry at Churubusco and Molino del Rey-. After the war he continued to serve in Texas, becoming paymaster with the rank of major in 1858. On the outbreak of the rebellion he threw up his com mission, and entered the confederate service. He commanded the 4th brigade of Beauregard's 1st corps, participating in the first battle of Bull Run. Promoted to a major-generalship in 1862, he distinguished himself in the campaigns under Lee against Pope, McClellan, Burnside, and Meade. After the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, he was made a lieutenant-general. He led the confederate right at Gettysburg, and being sent by Lee to the relief of Bragg, carried the day at Chickamauga, Sept. 19,
20,1862. In Nov. of the same year he drove Burnside into Knoxville, to which he laid siege; but he was Compelled to withdraw after the federal victory at Chattanooga, and join Lee in Virginia. He took a distinguished part in the operations in the Wilderness, till severely wounded, May 6, 1864, but recovered in time to resume command of his corps during the siege of Petersburg. At the close of the war, whose results he was one of the first southerners to accept, he devoted hhnself to the development of the southern railroad system. Afterwards separating himself from the majority of his former associ ates, he accepted office under a republican administration, becoming in 1869 surveyor of the port of New Orleans. In 1875 he removed' to Georgia, and in 1880 was sent to Turkey as U. S. minister.