LI'MA, the capital of the republic of Peru, stands on the Rimac, from whose name its (mil is corrupted, in lat. 12° 3' s., and long. 77° 5' west. It is 6 m. distant from its port, ,on the Pacific, Callao, with which it is connected by a railway. Including its suburban villages, ten in number, it contains ('76) 100,073 inhabitants. Lima is of Spanish origin, .and its generally magnificent public buildings entitle it to rank as the handsoinest city of South America. At one time the grand entrepot for the west coast of the continent, it still carries on a large trade, importing cottons, woolens, silks, hardware, wines, and brandy; and exporting silver, copper, bark, soap, vicuna wool, chinchilla skins, niter, sugar, etc. The temperature is agreeable, averaging 68.1° in winter and 77.6° in sum .mer; and the climate is comparatively salubrious, abundant dews making up for the -want of rain.
LIMA (ante). The approaches to the city are by six gates; and the principal ala meda, an avenue of great beauty on the road to Callao, is one of the most striking and impressive thoroughfares on the continent. The general impression made by the city -on nearing it is more in its favor than on a closer examination. At a distance, its spires :and domes glitter in the SUB, and its architecture, _Moorish in character, gives it a very picturesque appearance. But, excepting the public buildings, the houses are low, and irregularly built, though the streets are regular and attractive. The plaza mayor, or great square, has a handsome fountain in the center, and is the principal business locality. Here are the palace of the president of Peru, the cathedral. and the arch
bishop's palace; the old palace of Pizarro is on the south side, and on the west is the town hall. An immense amphitheater for bull-fighting is a feature of one of the alamedas. The longest side of the city, which is in the form of a triangle, extends along the bank of the ,river Rimac. Through the middle of almost every street a stream of water is turned each morning, designed to carry away whatever refuse collects from the houses; and this process, combined with the service of the buzz.ards, comprises the public scavenger ing of the city. The monasteries and convents of Lima, of which there were at one time a large number, have nearly all been suppressed. The convent of San Francisco, however, is a large monastic establishment, covering nearly seven acres of ground: there are also many parish churches and 22 chapels. The university of Lima was the first educational establishment of the kind in the new world. It has fallen into decay to some extent, but contains a valuable library of about 20,000 volumes. Lima was founded by Pizarro in 1535, and called Ciudad de los Reyes. It has been frequently visited by earthquakes, one of which, in 1746, destroyed Many buildings. The city has recently (Jan., 1881) been captured by the Chilian forces in the process of the lamentable war between Peru and Chili.