MA.RTIN (ante) I., SAINT, d. 655; son of Fabricius, succeeded Theodore I. in the papal chair, A.D. 640; opposed the will of the emperor Constans II. by assembling the first Lateran council at Rome in October, 649, in which the emperor's decrees were denounced, the pope presiding over 104 bishops from Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and Africa. Five sessions were held, and the judgment of the council was pronounced in 20 canons, anathematizing all those who do not admit the existence in Jesus Christ of two wills and two operations; this being the question as to which the emperor Constans had pro nounced for the opposite side. The opposition to his will on the part of Martin enraged the emperor, who ordered the imprisonment of the pope. He was accordingly taken to the island of Naxos in June, 653, and retained there an exile until Sept. 17 of the fol lowing year. He was now taken to Constantinople, where he was detained in prison six months. As he still refused to recant his opinions, he was exiled to the Thracian Cher
sonese, where he suffered great indignities and deprivation until his death. His body was afterwards removed to Rome, and the church of Rome commemorated his name. Eighteen encyclical letters are attributed to him, and are published in Labbe's Concilia and the Bibliotheca Patrum.—II., or MAnixts I., d. 884; a native of Montefiascone, in the papal states. He was three times papal legate to Constantinople; elected pope Dec. 23, 882, surviving his election only 14 months.—III., or MARDIus II., born in Rorne, suc ceeded Stephen VIII. in 942, and held the papacy 4 years, until his death, which occurred in 946. Ile was a patron of learning, and was held in high repute as one whose exam ple was Christian and noble.