MARMIER, XAVIER, b. in Pontarlier. France, 1809. After journeys through Europe he translated Krummacher's stories from the Germar.' Ito French, and their success ena bled him to make further travels and to become directol of the Revue Germanigue. In 1835, he was attitched to the scientific voyage of the Recherche to the Arctic sea. During the voyage lie acquired a knowledge of the Danish, Swedish, and Finnish languages; and on his return in 1839 was made professor of foreign literature at Rennes, and two. years later was given a sinecure under the minister of public instruction. In 1842 he visited Russia; traversed the Indies, passing from the Danube to the Nile; in Syria in 1845; Algeria in 1846; North America in 1848; South America, 1849, etc.; everywhere studying the languages, idioms, and literature of the country. His works are numerous,.
and valued as a fund of information for students of the languages and manners of all the people among whom he has been—for he has written continuously as he traveled.
MAInfONT,"AuousrE FREDERIC LOUIS VIESSE DE, duke of Ragusa and marshal of France, was b. July 20, 1774, at Chatillon-sur-Seine, entered the army at an early age, ..erved as a brig.gen. in Eg,ypt, returned with Bonaparte to France, supported him in the revolution of the 18th Brumaire, and afterwards continued in active military service. -Having defended the Ragusan territory against the Russians and Montenegrins, he was -Made duke of Ragusa. He joined the great army in 1809, the day before the battle of Wagram, was intrusted with the pursuit of the enerny, won the battle of Znaym, and was made a marshal. He was thereafter for eighteen months governor of the Illyrian prov
inces; and in 1811 succeeded Massena in the chief command in Portugal, where he assumed the offensive, caused the siffre of Badajoz to be raised, and kept Wellington in check for fifteen months. A woumf compelled him to retire to France. In 1813 he commanded a corps d'armee, and fought at Liitzen, Bautzen, and Dresden. He main tained the contest with great spirit in France in the beo-inning of 1814; and it was not .until further resistance was hopeless that he concluded' a truce with Barclay de Tolly, on which Napoleon found himself compelled to abdicate. The Bourbons loaded Mar mont with honors. On the retum of Napoleon from Elba, he was obliged to tlee. After the second restoration, lie spent much of his time in agricultural pursuits, till the revolu tion of 1830, when, at the head of a body of troops, he endeavored to reduce Paris to submission, and finally retreating with 6,000 Swiss, and a few battalions that had con tinued faithful to Charles X., conducted him across the frontier. From that time he resided chiefly in Vienna. Iu 1832 he engaged in an effort for the fusion of the French legitimists and Orleanists, but died at Venice on Mar. 2 of that year. He was the last survivor of the marshals of the first French empire.