WASHINGTON, a State in the West ern Division of the North American Union; bounded by British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon, Puget Sound, and the Pacific Ocean; admitted to the Union, Nov. 11, 1889; capital, Olympia; number of counties, 38; area, 69,127 square miles; pop. (1890) 349,390; (1900) 518, 103; (1910) 1,141,990; (1920) 1,356,621.
Topography.—The surface of the State is exceedingly rugged, being traversed from N. to S. by the great range of the Cascade Mountains about 100 miles from the coast. The highest peaks, all extinct volcanoes, are Mount Rainier, 14,444 feet; Mount Baker, 10,827 feet; Mount St. Helena, 9,750 feet; and Mount Adams, 9,000 feet. Eastern Washing ton, lying between the Cascades and the Columbia river, includes the Yakima and Kittitas valleys, and is watered by the Columbia river and its tributaries; the Yakima, Snake, Spokane, Methow, and Okanogan rivers. Lake Chelan, in the center of the State, is 70 miles in length, and 3 miles wide. Western Washington has an abrupt slope to tide water, and contains a few fertile prai ries and much broken mountain land. It contains Puget Sound Basin, Shoolwater Bay, and the Lower Columbia valley. Puget Sound extends inland about 80 miles and contains many excellent har bors. The Pacific coast has numerous prominent headlands, including Capes Disappointment and Flattery. The principal rivers of western Washington are Des Chutes, Puyallup, Duwamish, White, Black, Cedar, Lummi, Skagit, Swinamish, Skokomish, and Snohomish.
Geology.—The Cambrian, Silurian, Eozoic, Tertiary, and Cretaceous periods are all representeJ in the mountains of the W. portion of the State. The N. part, the Blue Mountains and the Coast Range are of the Eozoic period, and the central portion is a volcanic formation.
Mineralogy.—Washington is called tfie Pennsylvania of the Pacific on account of its mineral wealth, especially in coal, in the Puget Sound basin. Gold is found in the Yakima valley, and silver near Spokane. The chief min
eral products are gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc. The production of coal in 1919 was 3,100,000 tons, which was 982,000 tons less than the production of the previous year. The production of copper was 2,210,350 pounds. The pro duction of gold in 1919 was about 13,000 fine ounces, valued at $285,000. The production of silver was 316,028 fine ounces, valued at $354,220. Other im portant mineral products are granite, sandstone, marble and limestone, clay products, cement, antimony and tung sten. The total value of the mineral production is over $15,000,000 annually.
river valleys and plains of eastern Washington have un der scientific irrigation become exceed ingly fertile and productive. Stock rais ing and dairy farming are becoming im portant industries. The acreage, value and production of the principal crops, were as follows: corn, 45,000 acres, pro duction 1,620,000 bushels, value $2,997, 000; oats, 320,000 acres, production 12, 800,000 bushels, value $11,904,000; bar ley, 138,000 acres, production 4,140,000 bushels, value $5,589,000; wheat, 2,440, 000 acres, production 40,100,000 bushels, value $85,814,000; hay, 794,000 acres, production 1,906,000 tons, value $43, 838,000; potatoes, 58,000 acres, produc tion 7,250,000 bushels, value $10,512,000.
Manufactures.—There were in 1914, 3,829 manufacturing establishments in the State, employing 67,205 wage earn ers. The capital invested was $277,715, 000; the wages paid $51,703,000; the value of the materials used $136,609,000; and the value of the finished products $245,326,000.
Banking.—On Oct. 31, 1919, there were reported 84 National banks in operation, having $13,010,000 in capital, $6,886,000 in outstanding circulation, and $42,687, 000 in United States bonds. There were also 274 State banks, with $13,395,000 capital and $3,691,000 surplus. The ex change at the United States clearing College at Pullman, Gonzaga College at Spokane, and Whitman College at Walla Walla.