CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, a province in the Union of South Africa, which, up to 1910, was known as Cape Colony. It is located at the southern extremity of the African continent, surrounded by the ocean on W., S., and E., and on the N. by Southwest Africa and on the N. and N. E. by Bechuanaland, the Orange Free State, Basutoland, and the province of Natal. The area is 276,000 square miles. The country is fertile in sections, but arid in others. There are several moun tain ranges that divide the country into great plateaux or terraces. The most important rivers are the Orange, Oli fants, Gauritz, Gamtoos, and Great Fish. The country is rich in minerals, its most valuable product being diamonds. of these are produced here than in any other part of the world. The famous Kimberley and DeBeers mines are lo cated in the province. There are also large mines of copper, coal, gold, and iron, while amethysts and agates are fre quently found. The climate is healthful and, except in certain sections, the heat is not great. The mean temperature for the year at the capital, Cape Town, is about 62 degrees. Grain is raised in con
siderable quantity as well as vegetables and a wonderful variety of fruits, such as apples, pears, plums, peaches, melons, oranges, etc., which form important ar ticles of commerce. The country, how ever, is better adapted for grazing than agriculture, and sheep-raising is the most important industry. The value of the wool exported is little less than the value of the diamonds. Cattle breeding also is extensively carried on along the coast and in the northern and eastern dis tricts. The exports in 1919 were about $45,000,000, and the imports over $75, 000,000. The figures for exports do not include diamonds which, in themselves, have an annual value of $60,000,000. There are nearly 4,00,0 miles of railway in operation in the province. The chief towns are Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Kimberley. On May 31, 1910, the colony, under its present name, was merged into the Union of South Africa. The population is about 3,000,000, of which about 600,000 are Europeans. See SOUTH AFRICA, UNION OF.