CHARLES XIV., King of Sweden and Norway (1814-1844), originally Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, born at Pau, France, Jan. 26, 1764, the son of a law yer. He entered the French army in 1780 as a common soldier; became an ar dent partisan of the Revolution, and fought his way up to the command of a division in 1794, and a marshal's baton in 1804. He distinguished himself great ly in the German campaigns in 1796 and the year after under the eye of his great chief himself in Italy. In 1799 he was minister of war, and for his conduct at Austerlitz was named in 1805 Prince of Pontecorvo. In the campaigns of 1806 he commanded the first army corps. After Jena he pursued the Prussians to Halle, cut off the reserve under the Prince of Wiirttemberg, next pursued the redoubtable Bliicher to Lubeck, and compelled him to surrender, Nov. 7. He received the command of the French troops in north Germany and Denmark, and led the Saxon troops at Wagram in the war against Austria. He had never been liked or trusted, however, by Napo leon, whose jealousy and dislike now became so apparent that Bernadotte left the army in disgust, and returned to Paris. He was afterward sent by the ministerial council to oppose the British, who had landed at Walcheren, but meantime the breach between the em peror and him grew wider. In 1810 he
was elected crown prince and heir to the throne of Sweden. Almost the only condition imposed on him was that of joining the Protestant Church. He changed his name to Charles John; and the health of the Swedish king, Charles XIII., failing in the following year, the government came almost entirely into his hands. He refused to comply with the demands of Napoleon, which were opposed to the interests of Sweden, par ticularly as to trade with Great Britain, and was soon involved in war with him. He took part in the great and final struggle of the allies with Napoleon at Leipsic, but showed much reluctance to join in the invasion of France, and was tardy in his progress southward. There seems good reason to believe that the French throne was within his own ambition, and that his disinclination to act against his native country was due as much to policy as to patriotism. He became King of Sweden on the death of Charles XIII., in 1818, and won for himself the character of a wise and good king. Education, agriculture, man ufactures, commerce, and great public works, as well as the military strength of the kingdom, were promoted by his care. He died March 8, 1844, and was succeeded by his son Oscar.