CROMER, EVELYN BARING, 1st EARL, a British statesman, born in Cromer Hall, Norfolk, in 1841. He was educated at Woolwich Academy and entered the Royal Artillery at the age of 17. After filling several posts, he visited the United States during the Civil War, where he made a study of military operations. From 1872 to 1876 he was private secretary of the Earl of North brook, who was then Governor-General of India. In 1877 he was appointed Com missioner of the Egyptian Public Debt. His efficient service on this board at tracted wide attention and on the abdica tion of Ismail, the Khedive of Egypt, he was made Controller-General. After three years spent in India (1880-1883), he returned to Egypt as agent and con sul-general. On his arrival in Egypt he found political conditions in a deplorable state. He proceeded to organize the government, placing internal conditions on a sound basis. He also reorganized
the army. Through his skill in diplo macy, he was of great assistance to Lord Kitchener in the conquest of Sudan. He was made a baron in 1892 and an earl in 1901. In his later years he was a minister in the diplomatic service. He took a prominent part in the negotiations leading up to the Anglo-French Declara tion of April 8, 1904, by which France acceded to the recognition of England's control of Egypt. Before his death he was chairman of a commission appointed to investigate the Dardanelles campaign. His published writings include "Staff College Essays," "The War Game," "Modern Egypt," "Ancient and Modern Imperialism," and "Political and Literary Essays," the third series of which was published in 1916. He died in 1917.