KIEFF (ke'ef), or KIEV (ke'ev), one of the oldest towns of Russian Ukraine, and ecclesiastically one of the most im portant; on the Dnieper. According to tradition it was founded before the Christian era. In 882 it was made the capital of the Russian principality, and remained so until 1169. Here in 988 Christianity was first preached in Russia by St. Vladimir; and ever since that date Kieff has been one of the chief ecclesias tical and intellectual centers of Russia. The town was captured and nearly de stroyed by the Mongols in 1240, and it remained in their hands for 80 years. From 1320 to 1569 it was in the posses sion of Lithuania, then of Poland down to 1654, in which year it was annexed to Russia. The most notable institution in the town is the Petchersk monastery. which is visited by more than 250,000 pilgrims annually. Underneath the mon astery are a number of e,aves containing tombs of the chief saints of the Russian Church. The cathedral of St. Sophia, erected in 1037 on the spot where Yaroslaff defeated (1036) the Petche negs, contains the tombs of the grand dukes of Russia and a magnificent altar ornamented with beautiful mosaics; the interior of the cathedral resembles a labyrinth. The cathedral church of the Assumption harbors the bones of seven saints brought from Constantinople, and has a beautiful belfry with a peal of 12 bells. There is a university, transferred from Vilna in 1833. The industry is un important, except tanning and the manu facture of wax candles. Considerable trade is done, especially at the fairs, the most celebrated of which is held during the last half of January. The fortress of Kieff was begun by Peter the Great in 1706. The town was the sce.ne of a terrible massacre of the Jews in 1905.
It is the capital of Ukraine. Pop:. about 650,000.
K/EL (kel), a town of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein; 66 miles from Hamburg, at the head of a deep fjord (11 miles long) of the Baltic, which admits large ships to anchor close to the town. It is the headquarters of the German Baltic Sea navy, and is also an important commercial port. The chief part of its trade (before the World War) was carried on with the towns of Denmark and Sweden; corn, coal, tim ber, and cattle being imported, while coal, flour, beer, butter, cheese and fish were exported. There are iron foundries, shipbuilding yards, corn mills, breweries, and cabinet makers' works. Kiel is the seat of a university, founded in 1665. The castle, built in the 13th century and enlarged by Catherine II. of Russia in the 18th, shelters the university library of 200,000 volumes and a museum with sculptures by Thorwaldsen. The Than low Museum contains Schleswig-Holstein carved work of the 15th-18th centuries. The bay is defended by a series of forts placed near its sea entrance. The Baltic canal connects the Elbe and the Bay of Kiel. The old town, dating from before the 10th century, has been enlarged by the suburbs of Brunswick and thistern brook. Here was signed in 1814 the treaty between Denmark, Sweden, and England, by which Sweden exchanged Pomerania for Norway. In the World War Kiel was Germany's principal naval base. Here mutinies among the sailors of the fleet broke out in 1917 and again in 1918. The mutiny in October-Novem ber of that year could not be suppressed but spread to Berlin and led to the over throw of the monarchy. See WORLD WAR: GERMANY.