CALIXTUS, GEORGE, a celebrated Lutheran divine of the 17th century, was born in a Schles wig village on the r4th December t586. His father, the pastor of the place, bad been a pupil of Melancenon's. After receiving the rudiments of education at Flensburg, lie was sent to the University of Helmstadt in his sixteenth year. From 1603 to 1607 he devoted himself to philo sophical and philological studies ; but from 1607 he applied himself to theology. From 1609 to 1613 he spent his time in travelling through Bel gium, France, Germany, and England, consulting libraries and holding disputations. In 1614 he was appointed professor of theology at Helmstadt, a position he occupied till his death, March t9th 1656. His doctrines were moderate Lutheranism, in opposition to the harsh and stiff Lutheranism which had begun to prevail. His theology was wider, deeper, and more philosophical than that of his opponents. He wrote many works of a polemical character relating to theology. After
his death appeared Orations selectee, T66o ; Expos?". tiones literates upon almost all the New Testament books ; Concordia evangeliorunz ; Lutubrationes as quorundam V. T. librvrum intelligentiam faeientes, 1665. Many of his MSS. are still unprinted. Among them there is a large collection of letters. As Calixtus was so much suspected and attacked by the narrow Lutherans of his day, he was obliged to write controversial tracts and books in his self defence. He was accused of Catholicism and of a strong leaning to the Reformed theology. But though attacked and persecuted by men of an un christian spirit, be maintained his ground, and became influential in relation to the future of Lutheranism. The strength of his mind lay in the department of historical theology. His read ing was immense, and he could take a masterly survey of any period of church history. See G. Calixtus and seine Zeit, by Henke.—S. D.