ITTIN prim ii. This ver sion, which is distinctly quoted by the name of the Targum of Akilas the Proselyte (Zh+p31 -In), is Greek, and agrees for the most part with the fragments preserved of Aquila's translation.
iii. The description given of ?T3,7 = Aquila, is almost the same as that given of ,y6p,1N ; he is a heathen by birth, a native of Pontus, a relative of the emperor Hadrian (Illidrash Tauchuma Parsha, or as Epiphanius calls him reptleptons of the emperor (De Pond. et Mens., sec. 12), became a convert to Judaism, and a disciple and friend of R. Gamalie] II., R. Eliezer, R. Joshua, and R. Akiha (Hieronymus in lesaiam, vii. 14 ; yerusalem Kiddushin, i. r), made a version under the aus pices of these heads of the Jewish community, which they greatly praised (yerusalenz Megilla, i. sl ; 7erusalenz .ICiddushin, i. 2) ; and iv. It is sub mitted, that unless the identity of Onkelos and Akilas be accepted, we must believe that two men were living simultaneously, of remarkably similar names, both relatives of the reigning emperor, both' converts to Judaism, both disciples of R. Eliezer and R. Joshua, and both translated the Bible under the auspices and with the approbation of these Rabbins. These are the principal reasons which Levi, Frankel, Graetz, Geiger, Jost, Deutsch, and others, adduce for the identification of the two names, and for taking Targum Onkelos to denote a Targum made after the manner of Akilas or Aquila, the Greek translator.
The importance of Onkelos' paraphrase to the criticism and interpretation of the 0. T. will be discussed in the article TARGUM. The Targum of Onkelos was first published in the editio priuceps of the Pentateuch, with the commentary of Rashi, edited by Abraham b. Chajim, Bologna 1482, then in Soria 1490, Lisbon 1491, and Constan tinople 1505. The text of these editions is given in the Complutensian (1517) and the Venice (Born berg) Polyglotts (1518-26, 1547-49), and in Bux torf's Rabbinical Bible (1619), as well as in the Paris (1645) and Walton's (1657) Polyglotts. It has since been printed in almost every edition of the Pentateuch with the Jewish commentaries, but the best text is the Wilna edition, 1852. Onkelos has been translated into Latin by Alphonzo de Za mora, given in the Complutensian (1517), Antwerp (1572), and in Walton's (1657) Polyglotts ; and printed separately, Antwerp 1535, by Sebastian Miinster, 1526 ; Paul 1546 ; and by John Mercer, 1566. Onkelos on Genesis and Exodus has been translated into English by Etheridge, Long man, 1862. Useful glosses and commentaries have been written by Is. Berlin, entitled Nvann Breslau 1827, Wilna 1836; by Luzzatto, entitled 1011N, Vienna 183o; and by Ben Zion, called 11N lily, Wilna 1843.
Literature.-A thorough discussion of this much disputed Onkelos question will be found in the dissertations of De Rossi, dicer Enajim, iii. cap. xlv. p. 233 b, ff., ed. Vienna, 1829 ; Wolf, Biblio theca Hebraa, ii. 1147, seq. ; iii. 89o, seq. ; Landau, Rabbinisch-aram.-a'eutsches Worterbuch, i. 11-16, 36-39 ; Zunz, Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage der Yuden, Berlin 1832, p. 61, ff. ; Levi, in Geiger's (?jissenschaftliche Zeztschrift, vol. v., Leipzig 1843, p. 175, ff.; Anger, De Onkeloso, Leipzig 1846; Graetz, Geschichte der vol. iv., Berlin 1853, pp. 124, ff.; 5o8, ff ; Herzfeld, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, vol. ii., Nordhausen 1857, pp. 61, ff. ; 551, ff.; 609 ; Jost, Geschichte des u a'e n th u m s , vol. Leipzig 1858, p. 52, ff. ; Deutsch, in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, article Versions.-C. I) (.7.
ONO (juiN ; equivalent to PYIN, 'strong ; "Undo, ; Alex. and 1224n, ; Ono), a town of Benjamin, built, together with Lod, by the sons of Elpaal Chron. viii. 12). It was reoccupied after the captivity, and is again grouped with Lod (Ezra H. 33 ; Neh. vii. 37). It appears that there was a plain at or near it, called by the same name (tItk nvpm, plain of Ono ;' Neh. vi. 2). A valley is also mentioned in connection with it by Nehemiah : ' Lod and Ono, the valley of craftsmen' (xi. 35, cf. I Chron. iv. 14). The plain and valley may perhaps have been identical ; and some depression or broad torrent-bed in the plain of Sharon may have been meant by the sacred writers.
In the NotitIo Ecclesiasticv, an episcopal city called Onus is mentioned (Reland, Pal., p. 225), which is probably the Hebrew Ono. Ono is also several times spoken of in the Talmud, and is lo cated three miles from Lod, or Lydda (Lightfoot, Opera, ii. 426 ; Reland, p. 913). There is a small village with ruins, five Roman miles north of Lydda, which is probably, as Van de Velde suggests (Memoir, p. 337), the Ono of the O. T. Two ob jections may be urged against this view ; 1st, The distance is too great—five miles instead of three; but then the Rabbins were not very accurate geo graphers. 2d, In the modern name the letter 'Ain is found (1J t, or which makes it radically different from the Hebrew ; but there are other instances in which the Hebrew has been changed into the firmer Arabic There is a Belt Unja in the mountains hetWeen Bethel and Beth-horon; but it is much too far distant from Lydda to be identified with Ono (see, however, Winer, R. W, s. v.)—J. L. P.