CUNAEUS (VAN DER KUN), PETER, was born at Flessingen in 1586, and died at Leyden, where he was professor of law, in 1638. Besides some treatises on subjects connected with classical literature, and the famous Satyra Menippea (Lugd. Bat. 1612), he wrote De Republica Hebricoruni Lib. III, 8vo, Lugd. Bat. 1617, 121110, Amst. 1666, of which a new edition, revised and augmented by Nicholai, appeared in 4to in 1703. This work was translated into English, Dutch, and French ; and for many years served as the text-book from which professors lectured on the political and legislative part of Jewish arche=ology. It is now superseded by more copious and correct works.—W. L. A.
CUP. There are three Hebrew words chiefly rendered cups (or bowls) in the English version. 1. D17 ; LXX. irori)peov, calix. This is the com monest word, and is derived from pn, collegit, Gen. xl. I I ; 2 Sam. xii. 3 ; Ps. xxiii. 5. 2. LXX. phialH ad libandum, Exod. xxv. 29 ; Num. iv. 7. 3. ; LX X. scyphus, or crater, a large bowl or cup (ron)peov pacrALK6v, Hesych.), Jer. xxxv. 5. The derivation of both these words implies a circular shape. The latter is also used of flower-cups, Exod. xxv. 31. Other terms are linn, a covered vessel (1. Chron. xxviii.
17 ; Ezra i. 10) ; and nr;p, which only occurs in the curious phrase Pim 'p (Is. li. 17, 22) = calix poculi, or Germ. Becherkelch. The word mainly used in the N. T. is 7orliptov.
The cups of the Jews were no doubt generally made of earthenware orx metal, like those of other Oriental nations ancient and modern (Layard's Nineveh, ii. 304 ; Wilkinson's Ave. E,Opt. iii. 258 ; Lane's Mod. Egypt. i. 205). Of their shapes and distinctions we know nothing, and no doubt there was a large variety of shapes, which gave room for individual fancy. In Esth. i. 7, the cups used in the Persian feast are not only of silver and gold (materials used in cups from very early days, Gen. xliv. 2 ; Num. vii. 13 ; I Kings x. 21), but are all of different patterns. That the Jewish cups were usually circular or lotus-shaped, we may safely infer from r Kings vii. 26 ; Exod. xxv. 33 ; and the phrase Dim ny27, already referred to (Is. li.
17), implies the same thing, because the word 'p means properly the calyx of a blossom. Such cups are seen in the ruins of Persepolis, etc. (Jahn, Arch. Bib/., E. T., sec. 352).
The word cup' is used in both Testaments in some curious metaphorical phrases. Such are the cup of salvation, Ps. cxvi. 13, which Grotius, after Kimchi, explains as poculum gratiarum actionis,' a cup of wine lifted in thanksgiving to God (cf. Matt. xxvi. 27). That it alludes to a paschal libation cannot be proved ; and that it was under stood by the Jews to be expressive of gratitude, we may see from 3 Mace. vi. 27, where the Jews offer cups of salvation' in token of deliverance. In Jer. xvi. 7, we have the term cup of consola tion,' which is a reference to the wine drunk at the ircp(Scarva or funeral feasts of the Jews (2 Sam. iii. 35 ; Prov. xxxi. 6 ; Joseph. de Bell. 7xd. ii. 1). In I Cor. x. 16, we find the well-known expres sion, cup of blessing' ( rro01ov 7i)5 euXu-yffis) con trasted (v. 21) with the cup of devils.' The sacra mental cup is called the cup of blessing, because of the blessing pronounced over it (Matt. xxvi. 27 ; Luke xxii. 17 ; v. Lightfoot, Hor. Hebr. in 1.) No doubt St. Paul uses the expression with a reference to the Jewish cup of blessing' (nniz Dn), the third of the four cups drunk by the Jews at their Paschal feast (Schoettgen Hor. Hebr. in i Cor. ; Jahn, Arch. Bib!. sec. 353), but it is scarcely neces sary to add, that to this Jewish custom our Lord, in his solemn institution of the Lord's supper, gave an infinitely nobler and diviner significance (Bux torf, De Sacra Czend, sec. 46, p. 310). Indeed, of itself, the Yezoish custom was liable to abuse, and similar abuses arose even in Christian times (Au gust. Serer. cxxxii. de tempore ; Carpeov, App. Critic, p. 380, sq.) -In Ps. xi. 5 ; xvi. 5, the por tion of the cup' is a general expression for the con dition of life, either prosperous or miserable (Ps. xxiii. 5). A cup is also in Scripture the natural type of sensual allurement ( Jer. li. 7 ; Prov. xxiii. 31 ; Rev. xvii. 4 ; xviii. 6).