Gruc, FR. I Grua, Gru, . . . .
Kmnich, Krahn, . GER. I Grulla, Grua, . . . SP.
Cranes differ from storks in their appearance, habits, anatomy, modes of breeding, and every thing except that both happen to be long-legged birds. The Argila or adjutant, Leptoptilua argala, is erroneously termed the gigantic crane. The words Crane, Geranos, and Grus, and the Hindustani names of the three common Indian species, Saras, Karranch, and Kankarra, all have reference to the loud trutupeting of these birds, which have a curious internal conformation re sembling that of the trumpeter swans ; whereas the storks are voiceless birds having actually no vocal muscles, and can make no sound but by clattering their mandibles together, which they do pretty loudly. In Australia the term crane is applied to the egrets, or white paddy-birds, as they are called in India, of the family Ardeidm ; while in the Malay countries the so-called paddy bird is a finch ; and the real crane of Australia, Gr. Australasiana, is known as the Native Com panion. Some cranes and storks, four-fifths of the ducks, and the great majority of the scolopa cidte, breed iu the north, and come to India in the cold season.
(a) Grus antigone, Linn., Grua torquata, Viedlot, the Saras, a noble bird, is the largest of the whole tribe. During the breeding season it has a pure white collar below the crimson papilloae naked portion of the neck, whence the name torquatus. It is mostly seen in pairs a few of which breed in India in extensive jhil's, but tho great majority cross the Himalaya for that pur pose.
(b) Grua leucogeranos, Pallas, is the beautiful arge white crane of N. Asia, with black wing primaries, and crimson naked face. A few stray
pairs have been observed in the Upper Provinces of Hindustan ; and Burnes figured it from the vicinity of Kabul.
(c) Grus cinerea, L., the Kulung or European crane, common to Asia and N. Africa, visits India in great flocks, which wholly disappear in the breeding season. If we except the Manchurian species, the European crane is equal to any in the majesty of its gait and the beauty of its plumage.
(d) Anthropoides virgo, L., the Karkarra or Demoiselle, common to Asia and N. skfrica, is only known in India during the cold weather. It is the smallest, and certaiuly one of the most elegant, of this particularly graceful group ; tho only one with the head fully feathered. And it is adorned with beautiful white neck-tufts, and with lengthened and drooping tertiaries, and a bright crimson eye. Highly gregarious, the flocks are sometimes immense. Cranes are easily tamed, and they are very ornamental birds to keep. They have a cmious and peculiar habit of skipping about at times, attitudinizing or dancing, and now and then emitting their loud cries. In the wild state they do much damage to the crops from their niunbers • and repair during the heat of the day to sandflajts in rivers, or to other extensive waters, returning to feed morning and afternoon at regular hours. They fly in V=like flocks, like wild geese. The young, commonly two in number, follow the mother soon after exclusion, unlike those of the stork and heron tribe with which the cranes have little in common.—Z.