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Cyclopedia of India, Volume 2

Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti, A Hindu Festival Day, Held On The Occasion Of The Sun Entering The Sign 3fakar, Corresponding To Capricorn. It Occurs On The 1st Of The Solar Mouth 3fagh. From This Day, When The Sun Reaches Tho Most Southern, Till The Time Of His Arriving At The Most Northern, ...

Makran
Makran Is A Province Which Extends From Jashk To The Hingor River. Makran Has Persia On The West, The Provinces Of Las And Jhalawan On The East, Persia, Afghanistan, And The Kharan Dis Trict On The North, And The Arabian Sea On Its South. Its Western Portion Is Under Persian ...

Mala Arayan
Mala - Arayan. Various Tribes Of Wild Mountaineers Occupy The Higher Bills And The Mountains Of Travancore. The Hillmen Proper Number Close Upon 12,000, And Ulladars, A Hunter Race, 2829. The Vedar Hunters Are At The Foot Of The Hills, And In A Social Condition Very Similar To That Of ...

Malabar
Malabar, A Region On The Western Part Of The Peninsula Of India, Between The Mountains And The Sea. Its Name Is Obtained Directly From The Portuguese Malavares, But The People Call Them Selves 3faleallar, From Male, A Mountain, And Alain, A District Or Country. The Term Malabar, As Usually Applied ...

Malacca
Malacca, A Town On The Sea-coast Of The Malay Peninsula, Which Gives Its Name To A District, Forming Part Of The Straits Settlements Under The British Colonial Office. The Light House Is In Lat. 2° 11' N., And Long. 102° 16' E. The Mean Length Of The Province Is 40 ...

Malati
Malati And Madhava Is The Title Of A Drama By Bhavabhuti, In Which The Social Life Of The Hindu Race Is Largely Represented. It Was Translated By Professor Wilson. Malati Puts On Her Bridal Dress In Presence Of The Deity. It Was Customary Also Amongst The Greeks For The Intended ...

Malay
Malay. The Malay Race Are Found In The Malay Peninsula, And In The Western Islands Of The Archipelago. In The Maldives The People Speak The Malay Language, And The Ilova Of Madagascar Arc Said To Bear In Their Features Some Resemblance To The Malaya. Pesehel Says (p. 355) That When ...

Malcolm
Malcolm. Three Brothers Of This Name Are Known In The History Of The East Indies. Sir Pulteney Malcolm, Who Rose To The Rank Of Admiral In The British Navy, And In 1798 Was Employed In Cutting Out Of Vessels At Manilla. Sir Charles Malcolm, Born In 1782, Also A British ...

Maldah
Maldah, A British District In The Lieutenant Governorship Of Bengal, Occupying An Eastern Projection Of The Bhagulpur Division. It Lies Between Lat. 24° 29' 50" And 32' 30" N., And Long. 87° 48' And 88° 33' 30" E. Three Of Its Towns Have Been Its Capitals. Gaur Is Said To ...

Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands, Zabiyah-ul-mohli, A Vast Group Of Islands, Estimated At 1200, Extend Ing Southward From Lat. 7° 6' 30" N. To 0° 42' S. A Memoir Of Them, By Lieuts. J. A. Young And W. Christopher, I.n., Is Given In Born. Geog. Trans., 1836-1838. These Islands And Rocks Have About ...

Male Or
Male Or Paharia Are Billmen Of Rajmahal, Whence Their Other Designation Rajmahali. The Rajmahal Hill Country Extends From The Banks Of The Ganges At Segrigalli, In Lat. 25° 15' N., And Long. 87° 3' E., To The Brahmani River And The Boundary Of The Birbhum District, A Distance Of 70 ...

Malealam Or
Malealam Or Malayalam, Also Called Kerala, A Region,• In The Extreme S.w. Portion Of The Peninsula Of India, Extending From The Chandra, Girl _ Aver, In Lat. 12° 29' N., To Cape Comorin, In Lat. 8° 4' 20" N. It Is Fabled In Hindu Legend To Have .boen Reclaimed From ...

Malvacele
Malvacele, The Mallow Worts, A Natural Order Of Useful Plants, Comprising The East Indian Gencra,—abutilon, Althrea, Hibiscus, Gossypium, Inalachra, Malva, Pavonia, Senra, Aida, Thespesia, And Urena. The Mallow Warts Are Extremely Numerous In Species ; These Abound Chiefly In Tropical Parts Of The World In The Form Of Trees And ...

Malwa
Malwa, In Central India, Is A Region Bounded On The North By Hindustan Proper, East By Bun Delkhand, South By The Dekhan (dakshiu), And West By Rajputana. It Is An Upland Region, With Many Fertile Valleys, Included Within The Main Rivers Of The Ganges, The Sone, The Chambal, And The ...

Mammalia
Mammalia. The Animal Kingdom Was Arranged By Cuvier Into Four Great Subdivisions, —vertebrate, Mollusca, Articulata, And Radiate. The Articulata Has Since Been Greatly Subdivided, And The Limits Of Two Of The Other Subdivisions Have Been Slightly Altered. Vertebrate Animals Comprise Four Distinct Classes, Some Of Which, Viz. Fishes And Reptiles, ...

Mana
Mana, A Pass In Garhwal District, North-west Provinces, Over The Crest Of The Main Himalayan Range, Dividing British Territory From The Chinese Empire. Elevation Of Mana Village Above Sea Level, 10,492 Feet ; Of The Pass, 18,000 Feet. In The Mana Pass Is The Temple Of Badarinath. The People Who ...

Manche Can
Manche. Can. A Boat Or Ship. The Calicnt Manche Is A Boat Very Similar To That Of Mangalore, With The Exception Only Of A Raking Stem, For The Purpose Of Taking The Beach, As The Port Of Calicut Is Open To The Coast And There Is No River. These Boats ...

Manchu
Manchu, A Race Who, In A.d. 1644, Became Rulers In China. The Original Seat Of The Reigning Manchu Tartar Dynasty Is The North-east Of China. The Dynasty Has Given Every Encouragement To The Chinese Forms Of Education, And Has Admitted The Learned Men Of The Chinese To A Share In ...

Manchuria
Manchuria Lies Within Lat. 39' And 49° N., And Long. 120° And 133° E., And Measures Ap Proximately 800 Miles In Length, And 500 Miles In Breadth. It Is Bounded On The South By The Gulf Of I'eh-chi-li And The Highlands Of Corea, On The East By The River Usuri, ...

Mandara
Mandara. Mount Maudara, Celebrated In The Puranic Legends For The Churning Of The Ocean, Lies Southward Of Bhagulpur. Vishnu Is Fabled To Have Become Incarnate In The Form Of A Tortoise ; In Which Shape He Sustained The Mountain Mandara, Placed On His Back To Serve As An Axis, Whereon ...

Mandhata
Mandhata, An Island In The Nerbadda, Be Longing To The Nimar District, Containing Numerous Temples, Ancient And Modern, Including The Great Shrine Of Clinker, A Form Of Siva. It Is Cleft In Two By A Deep Ravine Running Nearly North And South, The Eastern End Containing About One-third Of The ...

Mandla
Mandla, A Town And District In The Jubbulpur Division Of The Central Provinces, On The Right Bank Of The Nerbadda. The District Lies Between Lat. 22° 14' And 23° 22' N., And Long. 80° And 81° 48' E., With Rewah And Part Of The Balaspur District On The East, And ...

Mandrake
Mandrake, Atropa Mandragora. Usul-ul-lufab, . . Arab. Mandragen,. . . Ger. Aztrung„ . . . „ Mandragola, . . . Ir. Tuhfah-us-shaitan, „ Lufahat, . . . Malay. Serag-ul-koshrob, „ Mardam-i-giah, . Pers. Yebruj, . . . . Yabruz, Yabrukh, Lakmuna, Lalanuni, Hind. Kaat-juti, . . . Thu. Mandragore, . ...

Manganese
Manganese. Mung-kin, . . . Braunatoin,glaasoiae, Ger. Bruinstein, . . . D Ut. Kohn Ka Pathar, . Limp. Savon Du Verro, . . Fit. Iddali Kalu, . . Tel. The Substance Known In Commerce Under This Name Is The Peroxide Or Black Oxide Of The Metal. It Is Commonly Of ...

Mangifera Indica
Mangifera Indica. Linn. Mango. Montana, Heyne. M. Domostica, Gcertn. Maghzak, . . . Arab. Mang'ga, . . Sunda. Am, . . Beng., Hind. Ma Maram . Tam. That-yat, . . . Burm. Mavi, Ltlamidi Chettu, Tel. Mavena, Can Ela (fragrant) Mavi, „ Mang-kwo, . . Onus. Gujju (dwarf) Mamidi, „ ...

Mangroves
Mangroves Are Plants, Shrubs, And Trees, Of The Natural Order Rhizophoracem, Lindley. In The East Indies, The Principal Are—bruiguiera Caryophylloides, Cylindrica, Eriopetala, Gy Innorhiza, Malabarica, Parviflora, And Rheedii ; Carallia Garcinifolia, Lancemfolia, Lucida, Zeylanica, And Candollianus ; Rhizophora Conjugata, Mangle, And Mucronata ; Ceribps Roxburghianus, Can Doleana, And Kandelia Rheedii. ...

Manila
Manila, The Capital Of Luton And The Spanish Indies, One Of The Largest In The Philippine Islands, And The Scat Of The Spanish Government In The East, Situated In Lat. 14° 36' N., And Long. 120° 57' 20" E. Manila Is On The Right Bank Of The River. It Was ...

Manila Hemp
Manila Hemp. La Mot, Bisaya ; Abaca, Tag. The Musa Textilis Plant, Which Yields This Hemp, Was Introduced By Dr. Roxburgh Into The Northern Circars, But It Had Been Neglected And Died Out, And During The Administration Of Lord Harris, Colonel (now Sir George) Balfour Obtained For Madras A Fresh ...

Manipur State
Manipur State Is The Kasse Or Kathe Of The Burmese. It Is Situated Between Lat. 23° 49' And 25° 41' N., And Long. 93° 5' And 94° 32' E. The Population Of The Valley And Surrounding Hill Is ,estimated To Be About 74,000 Hillmen And 65,000 3fanipuris. It Is Bounded ...

Manis Javanica
Manis Javanica. Desmarest. M. Leucura, Blyth. I Chum Or Scaly Hill Borer. Chun-shau-cap, . Chin. Pangolin,. . Jav. Lingli Or Hill Carp, „ Inhabits Burma, The Malayan Peninsula, Several. Parts Of China, And Islands Of The Archipelago. 3ianis Pentadactyla: Linn. M. Crassicaudata, Griff. M. Inaurita, Hodg. M. Macroura, Dam. Pangolinus ...

Manna
Manna. The Manna Of The South Of Europe Is The Concrete Exudation From A Species Of Ash, The Fraxinus Ornus, Linn., But Sweetish Secretions Are Exuded By Some Other Plants Of Those Regions, And Are Usually Considered To Be Kinds Of Manna. F. Gargavica And F. Rotundifolia, Lam., Are Also ...

Manpan
Manpan. Mann. Honorary And Prescriptive Rights Claimed By The Hereditary Patel And Other Village Office-bearers At Weddings, And The Right Of Precedence At Processions; The Rights And Privileges Enjoyed By The Patels Of 3fahratta Villages At The Three Hindu Festivals Of The Pola, The Dasara, And The Holi. The Pola ...

Manu
Manu Is The Name Given To The Author Of The Manava Dharma Sastra, Comprising The Hindu System Of Duties, Religious And Civil. It Is Called The Institutes. Mr. Hunter Fixes The Date Of Manu's Code As B.c. 500'; B, C. '900 Used To -be Assigned To This Ancient Work, And ...

Manufactures
Manufactures Of The South And East Of Asia Are Largely Articles For Personal Or Domestic Use. Compared With The Industries Of Europe And America, There Are No Great Shipbuilding Estab Lishments, Or Metal Foundries, Or Glass-works. The People Of India Make Excellent Glass, But They Turn Out Only Prettily-tinted Bangles ...

Manure
Manure. Zibl, Arab. Khad, Khau, Emu, Paus, . D. The Productiveness Of Any Soil Depends Princi Pally On Its Natural Or Artificial Capability Of Retaining Or Transmitting Its Moisture, The Vehicle, At Least, By Which The Nourishment' S Conveyed To Plants. The Soil Whose Constituent Parts Are Best Adapted For ...

Mar Kiior
Mar-kiior. Ilisn. Rawacheh Of Little Tat. I Rua Of The . . . Oxes 'aura Or Water-goat, „ Capra Megaceros. Capra Megaceros Of Hutton, The Wild Goat Of Hazara And The N.w. Himalaya, Etc., Is Called Mar-khor, Because Fabled By The Mountaineers To Kill Snakes By Looking At Them ; ...

Marava
Marava, A Race In The Extreme South Of India, In The Madura, Tinnevelly, Ramnad, And Sivaganga Districts, Who Differ From Other Neigh Bouring Races In Personal Appearance, And Their Language And Customs Also Differ. They Worship Local Deities, To Whom They Offer Liquor, Flesh, And Fruits, And They Practise Divination. ...

Marble
Marble. Tau-wha-shih, . . Chin. Pualain, Mannar, Malay. Marmer, . . . Dot. . Pers. Marbre, Fr. Marmore, . . . Port, Marino, It Mramor, . . . . Roe. Marmor, . . . ' Lat. Marmol, Sr Marble Is The Granular Limestone Or Carbonate Of Lime Of Mineralogists. It ...

Marches
Marches Of 'soldiers Iu India, From Their Prolonged Character, Require To Be Performed In A Manner As If Permanently In The Field. Sir John Malcolm Mentions (ii. P. 158) That Aga Muhammad Khan Reached Isfahan On The Third Day, Travelling 250 Miles. Captain Cunningham Mentions (his Tory Of The Sikhs, ...

Marco Polo
Marco Polo Was Of A Noble Venetian Family. Nicolo And Matthew, Two Brothers, Had Mercantile Establishments At Constantinople And In The Crimea. They Quitted Venice For The East In 1254, Left Constantinople In 1260, And Passed Through Bokhara To The Court Of The Kablai Khan, Who Sent Them Back As ...

Mari Ammun
Mari-ammun. Ammun Or Amma, Literall3 Mother, In The South Of India Is The Honorific Suffix Of Various Local Deities, As Mari Aroma Yagath Amma. Professor Wilson Thinks That Mari Amma Comes From The Virgin Mary, And That Yagath Amma Is From St. Agatha. Bul Mari Amma Seems To Be From ...

Marivari
Marivari, From Marwar, A Country In Raj Putana. In India, Generally Applied To A Rajput Engaged In Banking Or Trade. There Are, How Ever, Various Financing Tribes, Saukar, Sarraff Or Shroff, As The Marwari, The Bhatya, The Vaisya Komati, The Modi Grain-seller, And The Banya. The Marwari Arrange Themselves Into ...

Marriage Customs
Marriage Customs. Zijnil, . . . . Ahab. Mats (temporary), Lino). Nikah, Shadi, Dekiian. Laggan, . . . Maim Lyalt,•aktl, . . Jiind. Tazawnj, . . . Pr.m. Katkhudai, . . . „ Kalyanara, . . . Taw. In The E. Indies, Amongst Its Various Races, Forms Of Marriage Are ...

Marsdenia Tenacissima W
Marsdenia Tenacissima. W. And A. Asclepias Tenacissima, I A. Tomentosa, Herb. Roxb. I Gymnema Tense., Spr. Tong,us, . . Hind. I Chittee, Jeti, . • Tam. The Rajmahal Bowstring Creeper Grows In 'the Peninsula Of India, In The Rajmahal Hills, Pale Man; Nepal, And Chittagong. It Has Small Greenish-yellow Flowers ...

Marwar
Marwar Ranks Among The States Of Rajput Aua Next In Importance To Mewar And Jeypore. Tradition Ascribes Its Foundation To Jodha, A De Scendant Of The Rahtor Rajput Kings Of Kanouj, Who Is Said To Have Founded Its Capital, The City Of Jodhpur, About A.d. 1459. Marwar Is Bounded On ...

Mashad Ali
Mashad Ali, A Town Of Turkish Arabia, 30 Miles From The Ruins Of Babylon. Ali, Son-in-law And Cousin Of Mahomed, Is Buried Here. It Was Taken By The Saracens In The 7th Century. This City, According To Kinneir, Was Founded By Alexander The Great, And Was For 'a Considerable Time ...

Maskat
Maskat, The Capital Of Oman, In Fat. 23° 38' N., And Long. 58° 35' , 50" E. Including The Adjacent Villages, It Has About G0,000 Inhabitants. Until The Demise Of Syud Said, The Oman Territories And African Districts Of Zanzibar Were .under One Dominion. On That Event One Son Took ...

Masnavi Arab
Masnavi. Arab. A Form Of Poetry Where The Second Line Of Every Distich Rhymes With The Same Letter. Masnavi-i-sharif, Or Sacred 3fasnavi, A Book Of Moral Doctrine By Maulana, Jalal-ud-din Muhammad, Rumi, The Founder Of The Sect To Which Europeans Give The Name Of Dancing Or Whirling Darveshes; The Most ...

Masula Boat
Masula Boat, A Boat Built Without Knees, Used On The Madras Coast For Crossing The Surf. The Planks Are Sewed Together Over Withes Of Straw, And The Boat Has No Thwarts. They Are Used In Landing And Discharging Cargoes, And Carrying Passengers To And From Ships In The Roads. They ...

Matchlocks Or
Matchlocks Or Toradar-banduq Of A Peculiar Make Were Manufactured In The Shorapur District, As Also Jumbea, Knives, Daggers, Etc., Etc. The Price Of A Good Matchlock Without Ornament Is From Hs. 10 To 12. A Superior Matchlock Is Made At Koteli; The Barrel Is Filed Smooth On The Outer Surface, ...

Mats
Mats. Matten, . . Dot., Ger Galeran, Klasa, Malay. Nattes, . . . . Fn. Burya, . . . . Pers. Chattai, . Goa., Hind. Esteiras, . . Port., Sp. Stuoje, Stoje, . . It. Progoshld, . . . Rus. Tikar, Bogor, . Malay. Hassir, . . . Turk. Mats ...

Mazanderan
Mazanderan, A Province Of Persia, In Let. 35° 45' To 57° N., And Long. 50° 15' To 54° E., Lying Between The S. Coast Of The Caspian And The Elburz Mountains. The Inhabitants Are Partly Lek And Partly Turk, In A Number Of Separate Tribes And Clans. The Khalif Harun-u-rashid ...

Meangis Or
Meangis Or Menangus, A Group Of Islands On The S. Coast Of Mindanao, In About Lat. 5° N., And Long. 127° 45' E. There Are Three Islands Of Moderate Size, With Some Smaller Ones Adjoining ; They Lie About 36 Or 42 Miles N.e. Of The Talour Islands. Sangir And ...

Mecca
Mecca, Medina, Aden, Sana The Capital Of Yemen, And Daraieh, Are The Chief Towns Of Arabia. Mecca Is A Holy City Of The Muham Madans. It Is Situated In An Arid And Barren Tract Of Country, A Full Day's Journey From The Seaport Town Of Jedda. In The Summer Months ...

Mecii
Mecii And Kachari, According To Colonel Dalton, Are Considered To Be The Same People, Or At Least Of Common Origin. Buchanan Calls Them A Tribe Of Kamrup, Who Appeared To Have Under Gone Great Changes. The Large Tract Of Country Called Mechpara, In The Gowalpara District, No Doubt Took Its ...

Meconopsis Aculeata
Meconopsis Aculeata, Prickly Poppy. Guddikum, Gudia, Hind. I Kanta, . . Panjab. Meconopsis Is From Tovte.no, A Poppy, And A Resemblance, A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Natural Order Papaveraceaa, And Formerly Referred To Papaver. This Species Is Found At Kaghan, In The Sutlej Valley, Between Rampur And Sungnam, ...

Mede
Mede. The Ancient Territory Of Medea Is Now Included In Modern Persia. The Rise Of The Median Nation Is Wrapped In Profound Obscurity. They First Appear About Mi.c. 850. The Word 3ladai Occurs In Genesis X. 2, Along With Corner, Javan, Magog, Meshech, And 'rubel. Berosus Mentions The Medes As ...

Medicine
Medicine. The Medical Art, Amongst The Natives Of The South And East Of Asia, Has Had The Knowledge Of Western Europe Added To It During The 16th And Up To The 19th Centuries, And From Europe To The Pacific Ocean. In Egypt, In Africa, In Turkey, And Persia, And In ...