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stone, khassya, history and stones

NURTIUNG, a town in the Jaintia Hills. Its people erect stone pillars, which Lieutenant (Colonel) Yule supposed to be connected with their religion. He says that in the Khassya up right stones are raised as memorials of great events, or of men, whose ashes are not necessarily, though frequently, buried or deposited in hollow stone sarcophagi near them, and sometimes in an urn placed inside a sarcophagus, or under hori zontal slabs. The usual arrangement is a row of five, seven, pr more, erect, oblong blocks with round heads (the highest being placed in the middle), on which are often wooden discs and cones ; more rarely pyramids are built. Broad slabs for seats are also common by the wayside. Lieutenant (Colonel) Yule mentions one 32 feet by 15, and 2 feet in thickness ; and states that the sarcophagi (which, however, are rare) formed of four slabs resemble a drawing in Bell's Cir cassia and descriptions in Irby and Mangles' Travels in Syria. He adds that many villages derive their names from these stones, mau signify ing stone : thus mausmai is the stone of oath, because, as his native informant said, there was war between Churra and Mausmai, and when they made peace, they swore to it, and placed a stone as a witness.' Mamloo is the stone of salt, eating salt from a sword's point being the Khassya form of oath ; mauflong is the grassy stone, etc. In the

south of England, maen, man, or men is the Druidical mune for a stone, whence penmen mawr, for tho hill of the big stone ; maen-hayr, for the standing stones of Brittany, and dolmen, the table stone of a cromlech.—Ilooker's Him. Jour. ; The Khassya fountains, by Lieut. II. Yule.

NUR-ud-DIN LUTF-ULLAH, better known as Hatiz Abru, was born in the town of Iferat, but was educated' at Hamadan, and travelled exten sively in Asia. He was much esteemed by Titnur, and after Timur's death he attended the court of Shah Rukh, to whom he dedicated his great work Zabdat-ut-Tawarikh Baisanghari, which contains a complete history of the world, and an account of the institutions and religions of different people down to am. 829 (A.D. 1425). IIis work is gener ally known as the TArikl]-i-IIafiZ Abru. A large part of the work is copied from older historians, Tabari, Rashid-ud-Din, and the Zafar Nama.— Elliot's Mist. of India.

NUR-ul-HAQQ, styled Al Mashralii, Al Deli lini, Al Bokhari, son of Abd-ul-Haqq, author of the Zabdat-ut-Tawarikh. His father had written a literary history, which Nur-ul-Haqq continued to the close of Akbar's reign. He gives a history of the kings of Bengal, the Dekhan, Dehli, Guje rat, Juanpur, Kashmir, Malwa, Sind, and Tatta. —Elliot.