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SIND is a province of British India, between lat. 23° to 28° 32' N., and long. 66° 43' to 15' E. It is on both sides of the lower course of the Indus and the delta of that river, and is bounded on the north and east by the Panjab and Rajput ana, on the south by the Arabian Sea and Itunn. of Catch, and on the west by Baluchistan. Its Maximum length is 350 miles, and greatest breadth 280 miles. Its area is 48,014 square miles, and population in 1881, 2,413,823. It is under the Bombay Government, and is arranged for admini stration into the five collectorates of Kumchee, Hyderabad, Shikarpur, Thar and Parkar, and the Upper .Sind Frontier. But a good deal of the province is hill and desert, the fertile plains being' in the valley of the Indus. The density of the population varies greatly, being 2.19 per square mile in the Kohistan of the Kurachee collectorate, 15.9 in Thar and Parkar, 85.2 in Shikarpur and in that of the Hyderabad taluk of the Hyderabad collectorate,—the average being 50.3 to the square mile.

It has been repeatedly overrun by conquering armies,—by Alexander of Greece, B.C. 327, by the Bactrian Greeks, by Indo-Scythic tribes, by Hindu or Rajput dynasties, by the Arabs of the khalifat, and by Mahmud of Ghazni. After his time it was subject to perpetual incursions from the Ghori, Khilji, and Taghalaq dynasties of Dehli and the Panjab, and the Moghul rulers of India, descend ants of Baber ; Persian, Afghan, Balucb, and the British, have each in succession had dominion over it, and it is now a British province.

Three- thousand years of continuous changes of races and of dynasties have peopled Sind with multitudinous tribes and clans, many of them till lately predatory, numbers of them handing down blood feuds for generations, the bolder and stronger striving with the sword to win more fertile lands, and all of them being pressed forwards by ever order, and this was successfully attained by dis arming the population, which in 1881 was as follows :— succeeding conquerors, till stopped by the great river Indus or the sea.

The first task of the British was to establish One of the races still present, the Med or Medi or Mand, is noticed, B.c. 40-30, by Virgil, who calls the Jhelum Medus Hydaspes. They were not one of the five tribes of Yuchi or Tochari mentioned by Chinese writers, but seem to have belonged to the great horde of Su or Abar, who entered India B.C. 126, and gave their name of Indo-Scythia to the province. They seem to have been forced to migrate from the Upper Pan jab to Sind. The earliest of the Muhammadan writers notice that they were firmly established in Sind by x.o. 250, along with their ancient rivals the

J at. Ibn Haukal describes them in his time (about AA 977) as occupying the banks of the Indus from Multan to the sea; and there can be no doubt that they are now represented by the Mer of the Aravalli range to the east of the Indus, of Kattyawar to the south, and of Baluchistan to the west. Edrisi describes the Mand as a numerous and brave tribe who occupied the desert on the borders of Sind and India, and extended their wanderings as far as Alor on the north, Makran on the west, and Mamehel (or Umarkot) on the east. Ibn Haukal records that the Mands dwell on the banks of the Mihran, from the boundary of Multan to the sea, and in the desert between Makran and Famha1 (or Umarkot). They have many cattle sheds and pasturages, and form a large population.' Rashid-nd-Din locates them in Sind at a still earlier period. According to his account, Med and Zat, two descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, were the progenitors of the people of Sind, prior to the Mahabharata. The name is variously written as Mer, ?bled, Aland, in all of which forms it is found even at the present day. To these General Cunningham would add Mind, which is the form of the name given by Masudi. He identifies this people with the Medi and Mandrueni of the classical writers ; and as their name is found in Northern India from the beginning of the Christian era downwards, and not before that time, he concludes that the Mandrueni must be thy Saki Indo-Scythians who occupied the Pan jab and Sind, and who, under the names of Mand and Zat of early Muhammadan authors; were in full possession of the valley of the Indus. Lastly, 1Vilford's surveyor, Mogal Beg, writes Mandyala, which is also a form that he received from two different persons ; while in General Court's map it is spelt Mamriala. To this people General Cunningham refers the name of Minnagar, or ' city of the Min,' which was the capital of Lower Sind in the second century of the Christian era. That Min was a Scythian name in use is known from its occurrence in the list of Isidor of Kharax as one of the cities of Sakastene or Sejisbhan. The actual position of Minnagar is unknown, and there 'are but few data to guide us in attempting to fix its site. If he be right in .identifying Minnagar, or the city of the Min,' with Manabari, or the place of the Mand,' he thinks there can be little doubt that the great Indo Scythian capital was at Thatha.

The following list of the tribes and races in Sind was prepared by General Merewether, and it is believed to be very accurate :—