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TIBET is called by the Chinese Tsang, also Si Tsang. The Tibetans call their country Bod-yul, and the Chinese also call it Fuh-kwoh, or the land of Buddha. The term Tibet is from Tu-peh teh (Tu-bod). It has four territorial provinces, viz. Tsien Tsang or Anterior Tibet ; Wei or Chung Tsang, Central Tibet ; How Tsang, Ulterior Tibet ; and Gnari or Western Tibet. Tibet is now governed by China through the Buddhist hierarch, the Dalai Lama, and in this manner it is a dependency of China. (See Dalai Lama ; Tsong Kha-ba.) The Dalai Lama and Panshen Lama are aided by a council of four laymen, entitled Kalon or Kablon, i.e. Minister of State, under the direction in chief of the two Imperial Commis sioners or Residents appointed from Pekin. The authority of the Chinese administration being rendered the more complete by the long minorities which are entailed at each successive re-embodi ment of the two supreme ecclesiastical dignitaries.

China (Gyanak, Tin.) is on the east, India (Gyagar, Tin.) is to the south. A man of the country is called Bod-pa, and a woman Bod-mo. The Turk and Mongol races on the north of Tibet are called by the Tibetans Hor and Sok-po (Hor Sok). The hill people of India who dwell next to the Tibetans are called by them by the general name of Mon or M'hon ; their country, Mon-yul ; a man, Mon or Mon-pa, and a woman, Mon-mo. Khapolor, Chorbad, and Keris on the Shayok river, Khartakshe, Totte, and Parguta on the Sing ge chu, Shigar on the Shigar river, and Balti and Rongdo on the Indus, are Tibetan districts. Little Tibet or Baltistan contains about 12,000 square miles, is about 170 miles long, and lies between 74° and 76° 35' E. Little Tibet is called by the Kashmiri Sri Butan.

The Hun or Turk for 2000 years, up to the 3d century of the Christian era, predominated in the eastern part of the great plateau of Tibet. It was not, however, until B.C. 313 that the chief Tibetan tribes, the Hun or Ngari, Dzang, H'lassa, Wei or U, and Khan, were for the first time united with the State. In the 7th century of the Christian era its sway had extended from Kashmir on the one side to the Yo-long on the other. It con tinued to flourish for some centuries, frequently waging war on China, and compelling the emperor to accept ignominious conditions of peace. From the 7th to the 10th century of this era the Tibetans extended their dominions along the whole length of the Himalayas, and into Kashmir at the one end, and into Assam and Bengal at the other. Bhutan is so completely Tibetauized, that it may be said to advance the Tibetan frontier near to the plains of Assam and Bengal. For a period of five or six centuries, up to the 12th century, Tibet held a large portion of the Him alayas, and seemingly their dominion extended also into the plains, in the sub-IIiinalayas, in Assam, and in Bengal. Chinese historians, indeed,

relate that the Tsang dynasty, from the 7th to the 10th century, extended their conquests to the Bay of Bengal, to which they gave the name of the Tibetan Sea. Bengal appears to have been conquered about the middle of the 7th century.

In the 12th century the Chinese conquered Eastern Tibet, and towards the end of the century Independent Tibet was shorn of its power and prestige, and reduced within narrow limits. When Chengiz Khan, early in the 13th century, con quered Northern China, he overran Tibet, and brought to a final close the era of its political greatness. But though the West or Middle Tibetan so early in the Christian era crossed the snowy range, and occupied a considerable portion of the sub-Himalayas, and more or less modified their Gangetic inhabitants, their physical influence on most of the Gangetic tribes—Himalayan, Low land, and Vindhyan—appears to have been so slight that it is now mostly imperceptible. It is certain that a great influx of them took place seine centuries after Christ.

Tibetans do not seem to have dislodged the ancient tribes in the tract along the foot of the bills from Gauhati to Sylhet, but only to have conquered and modified them ; and the Changlo and Abor languages appear to place it beyond doubt that it was chiefly through the partially Tibetanized tribes and languages along the northern margin of Assam, and in contact with the dominant Tibetan population behind them, that an ethnic Tibetan influence was main tained in the valley of Assam and the countries to the south of it. The races in this region are chiefly Bhot, Turk, and Mongol. The Balti people, the people of Little Tibet, the Byltw of Ptolemy, though Tibetan in language and appear ance, are all \luhammadans, and differ from the more eastern Tibetans of Leh (who call themselves Bhotia or inhabitants of Bhot) by being taller and less stoutly made. Their language differs considerably from that of Leh, but only as one dialect differs from another. The Bhot have been extending westward. As a general rule, the Himalaya divide Hindustan from Bhotland, but there are Bhot in several parts south of the crest of those mighty mountains in Garhwal and Kamaon. From Simla, for several hundred miles to the east, all the passes through the snowy range are occupied by the Bhot. They have a monopoly of the trade across the Himalaya, are carriers, loading the goods on the backs of sheep.

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