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or Kathiawar

junagarh, gulf, north, miles, race, cutch, cambay and west

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KATHIAWAR, or Saurashtra, is the peninsular portion of Gujerat • between the parallels of lat. 20° 41' and 23° 8' N., and the meridians of long. 68° 56' and 12° 20' E. It was known to the Greeks and Romans under the name of 11oevpocu Tpriyri. The extreme length of the peninsula is about 220 miles, its greatest breadth about 165 miles, its area about 22,000 square miles, and its estimated population 2,500,000. The Kathiawar peninsula lies between the Gulf of Cambay on the south and the Gulf of Cutch and the Little Runn on the north, and a low isthmus between the Little Runn and the Gulf of Cambay unites Kathi awar to the mainland. In the isthmus is a noted depression, called the Nall. A highland occupies the interior of the peninsula. The highlands are remarkable for isolated mountains, amongst which is Girnar, rising to 3500 feet almost perpendicu larly. It occupies the middle of a circular basin, into which admission is gained by four passes at the cardinal points of the compass. The Pali tans mountain is another of the detached hills, 1500 feet in height, on which the Jain race have erected numerous temples and images of their tirthankara. Kathiawar is ruled over by 188 separate states, large and small, of which 13 pay no tribute, 96 are tributary to the British Government, 70 to that of the Gaekwar as the representative of the 3lahrattas, while, of the latter three classes, 132 pay a tax called Zor-Talabi to the nawab of Junagarh. The old territorial grants or districts are ten, viz. Jhalawar in the north, containing about 50 states ; Mucha-Kanta, west of Jhalawar ; Haar, in the north- west, embracing 26 states ; Okhamandal, in the extreme west, belonging to Baroda ; Barada or Jaitwar, along the south-west coast, also known as Por bandar; Sorath, in the south ; Babriawar, a hilly tract in the south-east ; Katbiawar, a large dis trict near the middle ; Und-Snrviya,lying along the Satrunji river ; and Gohilwar, in the east, along the shore of the Gulf of Cambay, so named from the Gobi' Rajputs, who are the ruling race in it. It comprises the Gogha district, belonging to the Ahmadabad colleetorate ; 13hownaggar, pro bably the foremost state in Kathiawar; and many others.

• The later senapatis became kings of Saurashtra, who placed their lieutenants at Valabhinagar (identified with the buried city of Wala, 18 miles north-west of Bhavnagar). When the Gupta.s were dethroned by foreign invaders, the Valabhi kings extended their sway over Cutch, Lar-desa (Surat, Broach, Kheda, and parts of Baroda territory), and Malwa (A.D. 480). It was in the

reign of Dhruvasena tt. (632-640) that the Chinese pilgrim Hiwen Thsang visited Falapi (Valabhi ?). In A.D. 770, Wallabhipur fell before an inroad from the north of a race whom Mount smart Elphinstone supposes to have been Persians under Nushirwan the Great ; supposed by Colonel Tod to have been Seythians, and by another authority to have been indo-Bactrians.

Kathiawar contains some of the oldest inscrip tions in India, as those of lindra Dama near Junagarh, and the inscriptions of Asoka near Girnar; a number of rock-cut Buddhist caves and temples at Junagarh, mentioned by Hiwen Thsang in the seventh century, and sonic fine Jain temples on Mount Girnar and Palitana. At Ghumli, a former capital of the Jaitwas, there are extensive ruins.

The principal chiefs are their highnesses the nawab of Junagarh, the jam of Navanaggar, and the rawal of Bhownaggar ; also the rang of Por bandar, the raj of Drangdra, and the thakur of Murvi. Junagarh, the most important, is held by a descendant of Sher Khan Babi, a soldier of fortune, who seized it in the general anarchy which preceded the subversion of the Moghuls. The jam is the head of the Kathiawar branch of the great class of Jharija Rajputs which surged into the country from Sind about the middle of the 15th century, and another stem of which is repre sented bythe rao of Cutch. The rawal is at the head of the Gohil Rajputs, a race driven in from Marwar by the Rahtors in A.D. 1200. He is descended from Mokheraju, a sea rover, who in the 14th century occupied Perim Island at the mouth of the Gulf of Cambay, and whose shade is to the present day propitiated by the passing mariner. The rana of Porbandar, styled l'uncheria, repre sents the Jetwa, one of the four ancient races still extant in the peninsula. In tho days of Malunud, all the west and north of Kathiawar belonged to the Jetwa but the forays of the J hala and Jharija havo confined them to their present district, the shaggy range of bills called Bur a. The Jbala, who own the raj of Hulwud Drangdra as their chief, are supposed to have sprung from an offshoot of Anhilwara, on the extinction of which dynasty they obtained largo territorial aggrandizement. The chief of Murvi is a Jharija, and was the first in Colonel Walker's time to abandon infanticide. Ile has possessions in Cutch.

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