SANGALA, ruins in Jhang district, Panjab, standing on a small rocky hill upon the border of Gujranwala district, DOW known as Sanglawala Tiba, and identified by General Cunningham with the Sikala of the Brahmans, the Sagal of Iluddh istn, and the Sangala of Alexander's historians. The earliest notice of the locality occurs in the Mahabharitta, where Sakala figures as the capital of the Madra situated upon the Apaga rivulet, west of the Iravati or Ravi, and approached from the east by pleasa»t paths through tile Min forest The neighbourhood bears the name of Madr-des to the present day. Arriau, Curtius, and Dio dorus all notice Sangala, a great city, defended not only by a wall, but by a swamp,' which was deep enough to drown several of the inhabitants who attempted to Beim acrosa. Alexander ECCMS tO have turned out of his direct line of march to punish the Kathceans of Sangala, who had with held their allegiance. He stormed the outpost of
Munda-ka-puro, crowded with fugitives from other cities, and then, breaching the ',vans by means of a mine, captured the town hy a.ssatilt. The Arashtra were the republican defenders of San gala. They are the Adraistie of Arrirtn, places them on the Ravi. They were known by the several names of Bahika, Jartikka, and Takka, from which last is the natne of their old capital of Taxan or Takka-sila, as kuown to the Greek!, The people still exist in considerable numbers in the Panjab Hills, and their alpha betical wtithig characters, under the name of Takri or Takni, are now used by all tho Hindus of Kashmir and the northern mountains from Simla and Subathu to Kabul and Bautiau.—Eillor.