SHAWL GOAT, Capra hircus, L., the shawl goat of Spiti, yields inferior wool to that of Tibet. Shawl goats' hair is called Pashm in Hindi, and Kashmiri lena in Tibetan. The common domestic goat of Ladakh is the well-known shawl goat, of which there are said to be two varieties. One im a huge animal with great horns, called Rappoo ; the other, smaller and with slender horns, is called 'Moo. It thrives only in the most elevated dis tricts. It is bred in Nubra, Zanskar, and Rukchu, but the finest wool is brought from Ruthog and Gnari, which formerly belonged to Ladakh, and from Chang-Thang, or the southern and moun tainous districts of Khotan. It is only shorn once a year, and the wool is at once separated from the coarser hair. The hair is pulled out, and is manu factured into blanketing, for tents, coarse sacking, and ropes for home consumption. The wool is shorn, aud is exported to Kashmir, and to Nurpur, Amritsar, Lahore, Ludhiana, Anibala, Rampur on the Sutlej, and Nepal. To Rampur and Nepal, the wool is exported direct from Ruthog and Gnari, but Leh is the entrepot between the other shawl marts and the wool-producing countries. The fine shawl-wool is called Lena (Lana, LAT.),
the common wool Bal, and the hair Pu. In Kashmir, the wool is sold to the merchants at Kashiniri Rs. 4.8 or Company's Rs. 2.10 per seer. The average quantity of shawl-wool exported from Ladakh to Kashmir and other places is about 16 loads or 6400 maunds of 16 seers each, half of which goes to Kashmir alone. The average price in Ladakh is about two rupees per seer, or £20,400 a ton. Each shawl goat yields about half a seer. The goats are about 80,000 in number, and their value £32,000, each goat being priced at four rupees. The Kashmirian merchants purchase the wool at Leh, at the rate of 80 pul (small handfuls) for a small rupee. Shawl-wool is produced moat abundantly and of the fiuest quality in the steppes between the Shayuk and the main branch of the Indus. About £10,000 worth nuty be carried down the Sutlej to Ludhiana and Dehli. Mr. Moorcroft estimated the importation into Kashmir alone at .£75,000 of value, and the annual value of the shawl manufacture of Kashmir at 1300,000.— 179ns Cunningham; Hooker's Journal, ii. p. 88.