Sind

ad, khan, debal, rai, succeeded, dynasty and shah

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In tho Middle Ages Debal was the chief sea port of Sind, hence called Debal Sindi. it was the emporium of the Indus, and seems to have been situated on the western bank of the Baglian river, below the junction of the southern branch of the Gliara or Sagara branch, five miles to the north of Lari Bandar. Lari Bandar las been deserted, and the present part of the svestern half of the delta is Dharaja, a few tniles east of I,ari Bandar. Dowel or Debal means a temple, and several Sind towns had it RS a pre fix, as Dobai Thatta, Debal Kangra. Debal Sindi seems to have been the port at which Zabeida of the Arabian Nights landed from Basra, and found all the people turned into stone.

Debal or Dewal is from Deo, God, Alaya, house = the house of God, a sacred city. Iiima-alaya is the snow abode.

Sind was found by Alexander c13.C. 327) well peopled, in a high state of cultivation, under several chiefs. From. the time of Alexander till the klialifat of \Valid (A.D. 705-715), Sind seeing to have been chiefly under Rajputs professing Hinduism. No Buddhist remains have hitherto been observed.

In the early centuries of the Christian era, the Rai-dynasty ruled froin Kashmir and Kanouj to Makran and the port of Debal on the shores of the Sea of Oman, and from Surat to Kandahar and the Saliman range. The commencement of this dynasty has not been ascertained, but in the time of Rai Diwaij the capital \vas Alor. He was a powerful chief, who contracted alliances with the rulers of India. Ile was succeeded by his son, Rai Siliaras 1. Rai Siliasi was the celebrated son of Rai Siharas, and the next was Sihams it., who reigned 42 years, and was killed in battle. He was a contemporary of .Nushirwan. After Siharas it., a Brahman dynasty succeeded. The reign of the Rai dynasty seems to have extended to 137 years.

Soyeral places on the Indus are named after the Uhach dynasty, viz. Chachpur, Chachar, Chacligaon, Chachi. Chach was the Brahman who usurped tho kingdom of the Rai dynasty of Sind. lie was a contemporary of Shahrain or Shahrear, and he is supposed to have invented the game of chess. Ile seems to have reigned about A.D. 2, A.D. 623.24, and to have been succeeded by his brother. In A.D. 93-94, A.D. 711-712, Muham mad Kuhn, nephew of the ruling khalif, \Valid 1., led an army of 15,000 men against the ruler of Sind, raja Daher, who fell in battle before Alor, A.11. 10 ltainzan 93, A.D. 711. Kasim pursued his

conquests northwards to Malian. In A.11. 99, A.D. 717, on the invitation of the ruling khalif, Umar-bin-Abdul Aziz, many of the Sind princes adopted Muhammadanism.

After the Umrnia khalifs, the Abbassi held Sind until A.D. 1025, when Al Qadar Willah, the khalifs' viceroy, surrendered it to Malimud of Ghazni. In the confusion that resulted on Mahniud's death, a Rajput tribe in Sind, called Sumrali or Sumera, established themselves, A.D. 1034, aild held sway until overthrown by the Samtnall, another Bahia tribe, A.D. 1315. A brief period of changes waii followed by the Saminah tribe re-establishing themselves ; and in A.D. 1360 Muhammad Taghalaq took Jain Beni, the reigning prince, to Dehli, from whence he was honourably dismissed, and in 1380 adopted Muliammadanisni. The Sannnali family continued to reign until A.D. 1519-20, when the last prince was dethroned by Shah Beg Argliiiii, prince of Kandahar. Argliun Khan Tarklian was grandson of Hulaku Khan, grandson of Chengiz Khan. One of his descendants, Shah Beg Arghint, occupied Siwi, and his troops in December 1514 took tho villages of Kakan and 13aghban, and returned to Siwi. In December 1520 he defeated the Sammah army, led by Darya Khan, and gave Thatta up to plunder. He resolved to retain Siwisthan north of the Lukhi Hills, of which he took possession after defeating the Sa'ta and Sumera tribes. lie subsequently occupied 13akkar, and moved down the river with the object of invading Gujerat, but died at Chainduka in June 1522. lie was succeeded by Mirza .Shah Husain Arghun, who defeated a great army near Thatta, composed of the Sind and &mama11 races, led on by Jam Firoz. In A.D. 1543, Sind wa.s invaded by the emperor Huinayun. Shah Husain died A.D. 1552, at a village 20 cos from Thatta, after a reign of 32 years. Elphinstone says he was drowned in the Indus, and that the Arghun family then became extinct. lie was succeeded by Muza Isa Tar Khan (great-grandson of Argliun Khan, grandson of Hulaku Khan, grandson of Cheligiz Khan), who, after a comparatively peaceful reigu, died A.D. 1566, after a reign of 14 years. Ilis son and successor was Muhammad Baki. There are members of the Tar Khan family still in Sind, and 219,591 in the Panjab.

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