TIPERAII, a corruption of Tiipura, on the N.E. frontier of British India, is partly British territory, and in part under a native ruler.
The British province in 1872 had a population of 1,522,228 souls. It presents a continuous flat and open surface, with the exception of the isolated Lalmar range. All communication and transport are effected by means of boats, except during the few inonths of hot weather, when the village footpaths can be made use of. The Megna flows along the entire western boundary of the district, and is the only river navigable throughout tbe year by trading boats of four tons burden ; but the Gumti, Dakatia, and Titas are navigable for craft of that size for a considerable portion of their course. The Muhuri, Bijaigang, and Borig,ang are all navigable by boats of four tons during at least six months of the year.
The chief aboriginal tribe of the district is the Tiperahs, of whom there were 3004. Among semi-Hinduizecl aboriginal tribes and Hindu castes, the most numerous are—the Chandal, numbering 81,155 ; the Jugi, a caste of weavers, 66,812 ; the Kayasth or writers, 82,804 ; and the Kai bartta, the chief agricultural caste of the district, 53,916. On the 31st January 1860, the Kuki or Lushai suddenly entered the district at Chha galnaiya, burned and plundered 15 villages, mur dered 185 British subjects, and carried off about 100 captives.
Hill Tiperah Native State adjoins British Tiperah, lying between lat. 22° 59' and 24° 31' N., and between long. 91° 12' and 92° 24' E. Approximate area, 3867 square miles; population, 75,792.
Tripura was dedicated either to Tripuradana, the sun-god, or to Tripureswari, the mistress of the three worlds. The worship of Siva was here associated with human sacrifice. In no part of India were more victims offered up. Till the reign of Marina .Manik (s.n. 1407-1439), the number was 1000 a year ; but Dhartna ruled that human sacrifices should only be offered triennially. lie appears to have been an enlightened prince. So late as 1852, some men of the 'Fulda Juin MahnIs were tried for murder by sacrificing. This is a forest tract in the hills, and inhabited by the Mug, Chtikma, Ithang, and Tiperali races, and others, all more or less nomadic. The place of sacrifice
was a cleared spot in the jungle, and staked round with bamboos about six feet high. The sacrificiztl pole is the Phula bans or bamboo, scraped and stripped at the edges, the hanging strips giving a rade notion of ornament. These sacrifices gener ally occurred once a year. During its celebration at Agartolla a gun was fired every evening at sun set, when every person hurried to his home. The religion now prevailing in Tiperah is a forin of Hindu idolatry ; but it is said that before the accession of Trilochun, they worshipped only initural objects, trees, stones, animals. A trace of that old faith is to be found in their present practice, by the Tiperah and Kachari people, and Garo, of sticking a bamboo in the ground during one of their religious festivals, and worshipping it, as Kols worship the sal tree. The sal tree and bamboo had to be dispossessed before the new settlers could derive any benefit from the soil. The Tiperahs number 34,727 persons. They are divided into 4 elasses,—the pure Tiperahs, 27,148 in number, the class to which the reigning family belongs; the Jamaitya, or fighting caste, of whom there are 3000 ; the Nowattia, 2144 ; and the Ithang, 2435. They are all of the same religion, and speak the saine language. Their divinities are the gods of fire and water, of the forest and the earth ; and sacrifices form an important part of their religion.
Tipemhs eat flesh of every description except beef, but, after the decease of a relation, abstain froin flesh for a week. Both men and women are very fond of dancing. They are, as a rule, truth ful and simple-minded. No man is looked on as a person of any importance till he is married. The Kuki and all the hill tribes worship local deities, said to be fourteen in number. The Tiperah raja, in addition to the hill territory known VS Independent Tipemli, is the holder of a very considerable zainindari iu the diatrict of Tiperah in the plains. He receives his investiture from the British Government, and is required to pay the usual nazzerrana.—Daltas Elko. of Bengal, pp. 110, 111; Records of &Ater Nrzant at Adalat of Chittagong for 1852.