Hoei Hoei.—The Chinese and the Manchu races call by the name of Hoei Hoei all the Muham madan tribes who live under their dominion. This term, however, has ceased to designate a nation. As the Uigur Hoei Hoei, called simply Hoei Hoei under the Mongol dynasty of Yunan, were Muhammadans, this name is applied by the Chinese to all those of the same religion, in the same manner as the Russians are often called Greeks, because they are of the Greek Church. The inhabitants of tbe towns of Little I3okhara are in part descendants of the ancient Uigur Hoei Hoei, and consequently Turks, in part Sarti, or Bokbarians, who are scattered as merchants all over Central Asia, and who are Persians. There are inany of them at Pekin, Hang - chu - fu, Canton, and the other comtnercial cities of China. Their mother-tongue is Persian, but they also speak the oriental Turki, which is the general language of Turkestan, and the most diffused in Little Bokhara.
Language.—The Uigur writing character was the original source of those still used by the Mongol and Manchu, and WaS itself almost cer tainly derived from the old Syriac character through the Nestorians. The modern Tartar cha racters are written (and, it is presumed, read) in vertical lines from top to bottom of the page, tbe lines succeeding each other Frain left to right. What Uigur meant with Monf;o1 authors is doubt ful, but the people and language so called by the Western Asiatics were Turkish. Captain Vali khanoff speaks of the language now in use at Kasbgar as being Uigur, but it is not clear whether he means that this term is known to the natives.
Towns.—The three principal towns in Turkestan are Elchi, in lat. 36° 50' N., and long. 78° 20' E., 5500 feet ; Yarkaud, in lat. :38° 10' N., and long. 74° E., 4200 feet ; Kashgar, in lat. 39° 15' N., and long. 71° 50' E., 3500 feet. Elchi is represented to have the coldest, and Kashgar the hottest, tem perature of the three towns throughout the year. Snow falls at Kashgar, but never remains longer than a few hours ; but it is seen lying in Yarkand for three or four.' days together.
The people of these regions are from two dis tinct sources, viz. the settled races ; descendants of Semitic and Iranian conquerors from the south ; and the races who have beeu occupying the country from prehistoric times. The last part of the inhabitants have been styled Turko-Tartars, and are in their habits the same as they were 2000 years ago. Vambery divides the Turks proper into Burut, black or pure Kirghiz ; Kir ghiz, properly Kazak ; Karakalpak, Turkomau, and Uzbak.
The Burnt, pure or black Kirghiz, dwell on the eastern boundary of Turkestan, viz. tbe valley of
the Tian Shan chain of mountains, and they inhabit also several points on the shores of the Issik-kol, close upon the frontier chain of moun tains. They have powerful, thiek-set, strong boned figures, but are remarkably agile, and have acquired much warlike renown. Their face is , less flat than the Mongolian and Kalmuk, and less fleshy ; their forehead somewhat higher, and their eyes are less almond-shaped than the Kal muk ; few of them have red or_ fair hair or a white complexion. The Burnt are in contact with Ka!mak and Mongolians, and in consequence their language has many Mongolian words, and now and then they profess themselves more or less Muliammadans, but Shamanism largely prevails. The Buret is the wildest and inost savage and most superstitions of the Turk, but less malicious than the Kirghiz and Turkoman.
The Turkoinan is the fourth gradation of the Mongolian Turkish race, and in many respects they resemble the Kaiak and Karakalpak. The pure Turkoman type, as 'net with in the Tekke and Chadar tribe in the centre of the desert, is of middling stature, small oblong head, not high cheek-bones, somewhat snub noses ; longish chins, feet turned in, with the bright, sparkling, fiery eyes of the desert races, but more particularly the Turkoman. The blonde colour is common,— indeed, the Kelt race amongst the Gorgen Yornut aro generally half blonde. The Goklen and other tribes near Persia evidence an interinixture with the Iranian Persian. The Turkoznan are slender and agile, and they are hardy and enduring under privations. They early separated themselves from other Turko-Tartarian nations, moving from Mang ishlak in the east to the north-west, and thence to the south. In their present country, the Salor and Sarik are the oldest tribes ; after them the Yomut, who at one time ranged from north to south along the shores of the Caspian. The Tekke were transferred by Timur to Akhal. The Ersari, at the close of the 18th century, moved from Mangishlak to the shores of the Oxus, and recently many of the Chadar moved to the other bank of the OX1313. Tho chief avocation has been pillage. The men wear long locks till the close of the first year of their marriage. The women are handsome, and perfect beauties are to be seen, not inferior to the Georgians in figure and regularity of features. The young girls of all nomade tribes are good riders, but Turkoman women excel all others. Turkoman women, amongst the pomades, wear heavy silver ornaments. They are the labourers of the community, aro virtuous, devoted, and much respected. Uzbak women go unveiled.