TURKOMAN inhabit the desert country com prised by a line dmwn through Astrabad, Herat, and Balkh on the south, the course of the Oxus from Balkh to the Aral on the east, the Cultism on the west, and the elevated plateau c.alled the Ust Urt lying between the seas of the Caspian and the Aral on the north. They must not be confounded with the Kirghiz or Kazak. They have never been under one head, but have tribes (khalk), branches (taife), and tini or clans. Some of them are nomades, and others are settled ou the river valleys. Their tribes or khalk and their estimated numbers arc as under :— 1. Chandor or Chooder, between the Caspian and Aral, 12,000 to 20,000 tents. They have seven tad& 2. Erzari or Orzari, on the left bank of tile Oxus, 50,000 to 100,000 tents.
3. Alich or Andkliiii, near Andklmi, 100 tents.
4. Kara, a savag,e, predatory tribe, between Andkhui and Merv, 1000 tents.
5. Salor, a brave, ancient tribe, about the Murghab and Merv, 6000 tents.
G. Sarik, about Panjdell, on the banks of the .Murghab, 9000 or 10,000 tents.
7. Tekke, the most warlike and powerful of all tho tribes. They range front N. of the Goklens up to Khiva, and beyond Mery Shah are found on the bank of the Oxus. Their two encamp ments are the Akita' Tekke to tile E. of the Tajend swamp, and Mery Tekke at Merv. They have little of arable land, and lived by robbery' and enslaving Persians. Their tents number 40,000 (Abbott) to 60,000 (Vambery), Marvin 50,000. Mery is the central position of this tribe, and in January 1884, at their own request, Russia annexed Merv.
8. Goklen, a pastoral and agricultural tribe of 8000 or 10,000 tents in the valley of the Gorghen, for 90 miles, till they meet the Kurds. They aro mostly subject to Persia. They are at inveterate
feud with the Tekke to the N. They have ten clans.
9. Yotnut are in two branches, the Gorglien Yomut on the Gorghen river under Persia, and the Yomut of Khiva in the desert on the left bank of the Oxua. They enslave Persians. They number 40,000 to 50,000 tent& Population.—Accortling to Major Abbott, the total tents of Turkoman are 91,700 ; acconling to Professor Vambery, 196,000, or respectively 458,500 a»d 982,500 souls. The Turkornan have no shadow of government ; each is lord of his OWD tent, but they show a little respect to old age and to valour, and highly prize purity of Tartar descent in the Eeg or free-born. • Were the tribes to combine, Persia would be at their mercy. Their average height is 5 feet 7 inches ; features irregular, beardless, eyes small and round, with a bold, penetrating glance, and a-proud military bearing. They are honest amongst themselves, though pre datory to strangers, and they are hospitable. The men attend only to their horses, listen to story tellers. Their:arms are a curved sabre and long spear, with gun or pistol, and the Tekke have cannons. The women are often good-looking, and are chaste. They marry early, occasionally before puberty, and have the show of attacking the bride's camp, to seize her, also the Kokburi (green wolf), where the bride, in bridal costume, rides off with the carcase of a lamb or goat. They are Sunni Muhammadans, but uneducated and barbarous. The modern travellers who have given accounts of the Turkomans are General Petroosevitch, Major Butler, Colonel MacGregor, Major Burnaby.