UPANISHAD, a class of sacred books belong ing to the Hindus, containing doctrines of the Vedas explained and enlarged according to the Vedanta. They are the best books after that school. Their theology is monotheistie, a pure theism, and Brahm, in the neuter gender, is used for the deity ; the dogma of one Supreme Being, detached from matter, maya or sacred.' The Upanishad, therefore, may be described as treatises on the unity of God and the identity of spirit. Some of the shortest were translated into English biRam Mohun Roy, Dr. Carey, and Sir W. Jones. They were also rendered into Persian lay order of Dara Shekoh, the son of Shah Jahan and were thence rendered into Latin by Anquetiedu Perron, a Summary of whose works -in the French has been published by M. Lanjuinais. In 1882, Mr. A, E. Gough, Principal of the Calcutta Mad rassa, has treated on their philosophy and ancient Indian metaphysics, and the translations of five of them are given in Max Muller's Sacred Books of the East. The whole number of Upanishads known at present is 138, of which only 11 have been published. According to the theory laid clown in the Mahavakya Ratnavali, there are 1180 Upanishad, equal to the nutnber of Vedaic schools, one Upanishad belonging to each school. This theory, however, is fanciful. According to the °received definition,-the Upanishad are such parts of the Vedas as embody their metaphysical and theological views, which may be compressed into the'formula that the finite soul is essentially the same with the infinite spirit or Brahma ; and though the various Upanishads widely differ from each other, all maintain this identity of the finite and infinite spirit. Dr. Weber arranges the
Upanishad into—(1) those which belong to the three first Vedas, as forming the Vedanta system ; (2) those comprising all the Atharva 'Upanishad, and referrina to the Vedanta system in its entire development7; (3) the Upanishad in which the meditation has become crystallized, and is limited t,o the mystical word Aum ; (4) those treating on the order of the Sanyasi ; and (5) the last division, which includes the sectarian Upanishad, in which the Atma is worshipped as an inde pendent deity. ' The Talavakara Upanishad has the follow ing fine thoughts concernina- the nature of God :--• ' Quist thou conceivci the vast Eternal Mind, To rock and cave and LibYan waste confrhed? Is there a place which God would calthis own, v. • Before a virtuous mind, his spirit's noblest throne ? Why seek we further ? lo ! above, around, Where'er thou wanderest, there may God be found ; And prayer from every lanais by his blessing crowned.' —Thomas' Prinsep's Antiquities ; Taylor ; Hind, Th. ii. p. 13 ; Darwinisni in Morals, p. 200.