WHANGHEE. Jar., MaLay. A name de rived from the Chinese Wang, yellow, and Hee, root, a species of cane exported from China. The whanghee cane has a pale, hard bark and flexible stem, with intervals of about an inch and a half or two inches, and a number of little holes at the knots. These small canes, with short internodes, are imported from China into England as walking sticks.
Mitch, 11tAB. GIBRO, Fonnento, . . Ir.
. ems. Gandum, Trigo, MALAY. „ Khanak, . . . PANJ.
I Ned e, DAN. Gundum, . . . . PERS.
Tarw, . . . . DUT. Pszcnica, . . . . Pot.
Froment, Bled, Blc, PR. Trigo, PORT.
Weitzen , GER Pscheniz, . . Eva.
Purvi 0 Hvete, Sw Xhit , . . . HEB. Ood umbi, . . . TAM. . . . . HIND. Godumalu, . . . TEL.
The geographical range of the wheat region along the Atlantic portions of the western con tinent, embraces the tract. lying between the 30th and 50th parallels, and, in the country westward of the Rocky :Mountains, one or two more degrees farther north. Along the west coast of South America, as well as in situations within the torrid zone, sufficiently elevated above the level of the sea, and properly irrigated by natural or artificial means, abundant crops are often produced. Wheat has, from time immemorial, been a staple crop in the plains of Northern India, and especially in the Panjab. Tho climate and soil are well fitted for this cereal, but, owing to defects and careless ness in the agriculture and harvesting, the crops, though excellent, fall short of what most corn growing countries produce.
Wheat is grown to a great extent in Berar, in Coimbatore, and largely in Burma, and it is now largely and inci•easingly exported from India, viz. : 1874-75, . . 1,069,076 cwt. Rs. 49,04,352 1875-76, . . 2,498,185 „ 90,10,255 1876-77, . . 5,583,336 „ 1,95,63,325 1877-78, . . 6,340,150 „ 2,83,69,899 1878-79, . . 1,044,709 „ 51,37,785 1879-80, . . 2,195,550 „ 1,12,10,148 1880-81, . 7,444,375 „ 3,27,79,416 1881-82, . . 10,863,520 „ 8,60,40,815 1882-83, . 14,151,765 „ 6,07,13,170 In 1883, Messrs. M`Dougall Brothers were requested by the India Office to take a given quantity of the four representative Indian wheats, viz. Indian fine soft white," superior soft red,'
average hard white,' and average hard red,' and manufacture them into flour by the ordinary pro cess of grinding under millstones ; also that similar quantities should be manufactured into flour by means of crushing between rollers, according to what is known as the Hungarian or roller systein ; further, that a given quantity of each flour should be manufactured into bread ; that the qualities and other characteristics of the flours and offals thereof should be severally noted ; and that tho Indian wheats should be severally compared with all the leading varieties of home and foreign wheats. They reported that they all possess, in a marked degree, the same characteristics of great dryness and a distinct beany and almost aromatic flavour in separable from wheats grown in the climate; and soils of the tropics. Also, that the flours aro ricey, the texture of the bread is too close, and the crust is hard and, brittle. But these characteristics do not detract from their usefulness in any important deg,ree. A miller cannot show skill in his craft to greater advantage or profit than in the 1N-ay he selects his wheats and mixes his grists, so as to produce to best advantage a flour front which bread can be made of the colour, bloom, strength, and flavour desired, and withal a good yield. Messrs. INPDougall pronounced the Indian wheats to bo exceedingly useful wheats,-in fact, hardly equalled, for what is deficient in the English market, by any other wheats. Their chief characteristie.s aro just those in which wheats grown in the variable British climate are most deficient. Their great dryness and soundness render them invalu able for admixture with English wheats that are in any degree out of condition through moisture ; and the great proportions of the wheat harvested here have been in that condition for years past,-a condition that must prevail in all other than that of wheats harvested and stored during fine and favourable weather.