ZANZIBAR, an island on the E. coast of Africa, in lat. 6° 9' S., and long. 39° 14' 10"E., which gives its name to a territory on the mainland adjoining. It and the greater part of the eastern coast of Africa were conquered by the Portuguese in the beginning of the 16th century. Driven to despair by the tyranny of their rulers, the inhabitants of Mombassa, in 1698, invited the assistance of the imam of Muscat, who expelled the Portuguese, and put many of them to the sword. It was not till 1784, however, in the time of Ahmad bin Said, that the Muscat Arabs established a per manent footing in the island of Zanzibar ; and even for many years afterwards, till the accession of Syud Said in 1807, the subjection of Zanzibar was little more than nominal. In 1746, the people of Mombassa threw off allegiance to Muscat, elected Shaikh Ahmad as their sultan, and main tained their independence till 1823, when, fearing the aggression of the imarn, Soleiman bin Ali, the sultan of Mombassa, with the consent of the people, put himself under British protection. A treaty in 1824 to that effect, however, was not ratified. The Zanzibar dominions extend from Cape Delgado about 1100 miles northward along the coast. In 1844, Syud Said of Muscat appointed his son Syud Khalid as his deputy and successor in Zanzibar, and his son Said Thowayni in Muscat. On their father's death, after arranging for a pay ment for Zanzibar, a dispute soon arose regarding the nature of this payment, and whether it implied the dependence of Zanzibar on Muscat. The niatter was referred to Lord Canning, who awarded the payment of 1000 crowns in perpet uity, but declared the independence of Zanzibar. In 1879, the population consisted of British, 24 ; Indian Muhammadans, viz. Khojah, 2974 ; Bohra, 1066 ; Mehman, 367 ; and IIindus, 954 ; Parsees, 26 ; Goa Portug,uese, 240 ; French, 39 ; German, 13 ; American, 8, with other Asiatics and Africans under the protection of the-British and French.
Zanzibar or Sangbar means Negro land, and was a term in early times applied to the coast of Africa, S. of the equator, but is now restricted to the island and littoral ruled by an Arab family of the ShiaII sect of Muluminutdans. The 'Zanzibar dominions comprise that portion of the eoaat included between Magditshoa in 2' nolth latitude, and Cape Delgado in 10° 42' south latitude. Beyond them, to the north, are the independent Somali tribes, which extend almost to the Red Sea, where they meet the Daukali race ; and on the south they are bounded by Mozambique. The extent of coast under the domieion of the Sultan of Zanzibar is about 1100 miles, but the most valuable parts of his sultanate aro the islands of Zanzibar (containing the capital of the same name), Pemba, and Montia. The first is situated at a distance of from 20 to 30 miles from the niainland. It contains none but small streams. It is a lovely island, of unbounded fertility ; the mango and other trees grow to an enortnous size, oranges grow in profusion everywhere, and pine apples of large size and good flavour grow wild all over the island. The Arabs grow cloves to
the neglect of other produce. The soil is a rich vegetabh3 mould, formed by decayed plants on a bed of coral. 3Iany rare and valuable plants grow here wild ; the sarsaparilla, the copal tree, spices of all sorts, sugar-cane of immense size, and rice. Zanzibar Island at its greatest breadth is 46 miles long by 18 miles wide, but its general breadth is 8 or 9 mileit, with a general height of 100 feet. 3fitthurdas Khetsee, a Hindu merchant of Zan zibar, at the close of the year 1872, mentioned in the Bast Goftar that Kilva and the surrounding districts were the principal seats of the slave trade. In Zanzibar and tho neighbouring places, the trade had been monopolized by Arabs, as British subjects are restrained there. At 31ozambique, Vibu, and the Gujit territories, under the Portu guese rule, the trade flourished. On the north, the trade was still moderately carried on between Burawa and Central Madagascar, and down to Soffala, British influence had succeeded in mak ing this trade a matter of risk, but traders carried on the slave trade under cover of the ivory trade.
Banya, Khojah, and Borah had the greatest share in the slave trade. A large number of Borah merchants reside at the principal towns. The Indian merchants go to &tutu, Mombassa, Zanzibar, Kilva, Queelowa, Mozambique, Mada gascar, Soffala, and Kurinatii. In 1872 there were only from 5 to 10 Khojah, about 75 13hattia, and a very large number of Damann and Diu llanya in Mozambiritze. Madagascar, called Bookin by the natives, contained about 1000 Borah and Khojali. Up to 1872, they had their families with them. There were about five Parsecs in Zanzibar, about the smile number in 3Iorainbique, two or three in Vibe, and one or two others here and there, all of Datnaun and Diu. They put ou Parsee dress, and were strongly suspected of hav ing some participation in it. The Cuteli Banya generally reside in ItIombassa and 1.ainu, while the Drunatm and Diu Banya live in Mozambique and the southern territories. The vessels f rom Dzunaun and Diu proceed direct to the African coast with these merchants. They live for about 30 to 35 years, collect money, and return to their native country to get married. The Cutchi 13anyit and 13hattia also go to Africa without their wives or families, but they keep African mistresses with them iu their houses. These women generally came from Bookin aud central towns of Africa, where they were to be had for 100 or 130 dollars. They have white akina MO handsome complexiona. lit Mozambique, Vibe, and other Portuguese townn, Portugueao women, and sometimes European women, live with these Ilindu merchantn. Nativo firms correspond with Hindu and Khojah firms in Bombay. Parents gent their children in their minority to Zanzibar to get an insight into tho intricacies of trade. Indian merchants have pushed in so far that not a single town is without at 'mat one of them. From 10,000 to 20,000 slaves were said to paws yearly through Kilva on their way to the variuus parts of the Sowahili, and to Arabla.