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Barter
Barter. When One Commodity Is Exchanged Directly For Another, Without The Employment Of Any Instrument Of Exchange Which Shall Determine The Value Of The Merchandise, The Transaction Is Called Barter. All Trade Resolves Itself Into An Exchange Of Commodities ; But The Commercial Exchangers Of One Com Modity For Another ...

Baths And Washhouses
Baths And Washhouses. The Establishment Of These Places For The General Convenience Of The Public, Forms A Novelty In Domestic Legislation, And Evinces A Regard To The Health And Comfort Of The Poorer Classes Of The Com Munity Creditable To The Age In Which We Live. Buried In The Depths ...

Beadle
Beadle, The Messenger Or Apparitor Of A Court, Who Cites Persons To Appear To What Is Alleged Against Them. It Is Pro Bably In This Sense That We Are To Under Stand The Bedelli, Or Under-bailiffs Of Ma Nors, Mentioned In Several Parts Of The Domesday Survey. Spelman, Somner, And ...

Bed Of Justice
Bed Of Justice. This Expres Sion (lit De Justice) Literally Denoted The Seat Or Throne Upon Which The King Of France Was Accustomed To Sit When Pen Sonally Present In Parliaments, And From This Original Meaning The Expression Came, In Course Of Time, To Signify The Parlia Ment Itself. Under ...

Benefice
Benefice (from The Latin Bene Ficium), A Term Applied Both By The Canon Law And The Law Of England To A Pro Vision For An Ecclesiastical Person. In Its Most Comprehensive Sense It Includes The Temporalities As Well Of Archbishops, Bishops, Deans And Chapters, Abbots And Priors, As Of Parsons, ...

Benefpcium
Benefpcium, A Latin Word, Lite Rally "a Good Also "a Favour," " An Act Of Kindness." This Word Had Seve Ral Technical Signification Among The Romans. When A Proconsul, Proprietor, Or Qniestor Returned To Rome From His Province, He First Gave In His Accounts To The Treasury ; After Which ...

Benevolence
Benevolence, A Species Of Forced Loan Or Gratuity, And One Of The Various Arbitrary Modes Of Obtaining Supplies Of Money, Which, In Violation Of Magna Charta, Were Formerly Resorted To By The Kings Of England. The Name Implies A Free Contribution, With Or Without The Condition Of Repayment ; But ...

Betrothment
Betrothment. We Sometimes Hear Of Parties Being Betrothed To Each Ether, Which Means That Each Has Pledged His Or Her Troth Or Truth To The Other, To Enter At Some Convenient Time, Fixed Or Undetermined, Into The State Of Matrimony. It Now Has Seldom Any Other Meaning Than That.the Parties ...

Bigamy
Bigamy, In The Canon Law, Signified Either A Second Marriage With A Virgin After The Death Of The First Wife, Or S Marriage With A Widow. It Incapacitated Men For Holy Orders ; And Until The 1 Vi. C. 12, 16, It Was A Good Counterplet To The Claim ...

Bill Chamber
Bill Chamber, A Department Of The Court Of Session In Scotland, In Which One Of The Judges Officiates At All Times During Session And Vacation. The Youngest Judge Is Lord Ordinary On The Bills During Session; The Duty Is Performed By The Other Judges, With The Exception Of The Two ...

Bill Of Exchange
Exchange, Bill Of, May Be De Scribed As A Written Order Or Request Ad Dressed By One Person To Another, Direct Ing Him To Pay On Account Of The Writer To Some Third Person Or His Order, Or To The Order Of The Person Addressing The Request, A Certain Sum ...

Bill Of Lading
Bill Of Lading, An Acknowledg Ment Signed Usually By The Master Of A Trading Ship, But Occasionally By Some Person Authorised To Act On His Behalf, Certifying The Receipt Of Merchandise On Board The Ship, And Engaging, Under Cer Tain Conditions And With Certain Excep Tions, To Deliver The Said ...

Bill Of Rights
Bill Of Rights Is The Name Com Monly Given To The Statute 1 William And Mary, Seas. 2, Chap. 2, In Which Is Em Bodied The Declaration Of Rights, Pre Sented By Both Houses Of The Convention To The Prince And Princess Of Orange, In The Banqueting-house At Whitehall, On ...

Bills Of Mortality
Bills Of Mortality Are Re Turns Of The Deaths Which Occur Within A Particular District, Specifying The Num Bers That Died Of Each Different Disease, And Showing, In Decennial Or Shorter Periods, The Ages At Which Death Took Place. The London Bills Of Mortality Were Commenced In 1592, After A ...

Bishop
Bishop, The Name Of That Superior Order Of Pastors Or Ministers In The Christian Church Who Exercise Super Intendency Over The Ordinary Pastors Within A Certain District, Called Their See Or Diocese, And To Whom Also Belongs The Performance Of Those Higher Duties Of Christian Pastors, Ordination, Consecra Tion (or ...

Bishopric
Bishopric Is A Term Equivalent To Diocese Or See, Denoting The Whole District Through Which The Bishop's Superinten, Deny Extends. The Final Syllable Is The Anglo-saxon Pace, Region, Which Entered In Like Manner Into The Composition Of One Or Two Other Words. The Word Diocese Is From The Greek Dioekesis ...

Bishopric
Bishopric. [ 3 Bishop Of Gloucester And Bristol. The New Diocese Of Ripon Did Not Conse Quently Add To The Number Of Bishoprics. This Bishopric Is Formed Out Of The Dio Ceses Of York And Chester. The Same Act Also Provided For The Union Of The Dioceses Of Bangor And ...

Black Mail
Black-mail Is The Name Given To Certain Contributions Formerly Paid By Landed Proprietors And Farmers In The Neighbourhood Of The Highlands Of Scot Land, Of The English And Scottish Border, And Of Other Places Subjected To The In Roads Of " Rievers," Or Persons Who Stole Cattle On A Large ...

Blasphemy
Bla'sphemy (in Greek F3aa1pnihia, Blasphlinia), A Crime Which Is Punished By The Laws Of Most Civilized Nations, And Which Has Been Regarded Of Such Enormity In Many Nations As To Be Punished With Death. The Word Is Greek, But It Has Found Its Way Into The English And Several Other ...

Bona Fides
Bona Fides And Bona Fide Is An Expression Often Used In The Conversa Tion Of Common Life. It Is Also Often In The Mouths Of Lawyers, And It Occurs In Acts Of Parliament, Where (in Some Cases At Least) It Means That The Acts Referred To Must Not Be Done ...

Book Trade
Book Trade. The Substance R. This Notice Is Condensed, With Slight Alter Ations Here And There, From A ' Postscript' To ' William Caxton : A Biography,' By Mr. Charles Knight, Which Gives A History Of The " Progress Of The Press In Eng Land." The Subject May Be Divided ...

Bordarii
Borda'rii, One Of The Classes O Agricultural Occupiers Of Land Menetned In The Domesday Survey, And, With The Exception Of The Villani, The Largest. The Origin Of Their Name, And The Exact Na Ture Of Their Tenure, Are Doubtful. Coke (inst. Lib. I. I. Fol. 5 B, Edit. 1628) ...

Borough English
Borough-english Is A Peculiar Custom By Which Lands And Tenements Held In Ancient Burgage Descend To The Youngest Son Instead Of To The Eldest, Wherever Such Custom Obtains. It Still Exists In Many Cities And Ancient Bo Roughs, And In The Adjoining Districts. The Land Is Held In Socage, Hut ...

Bounty
Bounty, A Sum Of Money Paid By Government To The Persons Engaged In Certain Branches Of Commerce, Manuflic Tures, Or Other Branch Of Industry. The Question Of Bounties And Their Im Policy Is Discussed By Adam Smith In His Of Nations,' Book Iv. Chap. 5; And The Subject Has Also ...

Brevet
Brevet, In France, Denotes Any Warrant Granted By The Sovereign To An Individual In Order To Entitle Him To Per Form The Duty To Which It Refers. In The British Service, The Term Is Applied To A Commission Con On An Officer A Degree Of Rank Imm Ly ...

Bribery
Bribery, In English Law, Has A Threefold Signification : Denoting, First, The Offence Of A Judge, Magistrate, Or Gmy Person Concerned Judicially In The Adim Nistration Of Justice, Receiving A Reward Or Consideration From Parties Interested, For The Purpose Of Procuring A Partial And Favourable Decision ; Secondly, The Receipt ...

Brick
Brick, Used In Building, And Too Com Monly Known To Require Description. It Is Noticed Here As An Article On Which A Tax Is Levied. The Activity Of This Manu Facture Is One Of The Most Unerring Indi Cations Of Prosperity. In 1756 A Tax On Bricks And Tiles Was ...

Bridges
Bridges Are Of Two Classes, Public And Private. Public Bridges May Be Con Sidered Either As County Bridges Or As Highways, Although The Principle Of That Distinction Does Not Seem Very Clear. Every County Bridge Is A Highway, Inas Much As It Is A Bridge Over Which A High Way ...

Brief
Brief, Commonly Called Church Brief, Or King's Letter. This Instrument Consisted Of A Kind Of Open Letter Issued Out Of Chancery In The King's Name, And Sealed With The Privy Seal, Directed To The Archbishops, Bishops, Clergymen, Magistrates, Church-wardens, And Overseers Of The Poor Throughout England. It Recited That The ...

Broker
Broker, A Person Employed In The Negotiation And Arrangement Of Mercan Tile Transactions Between Other Parties, And Generally Engaged In The Interest Of One Of The Principals, Either The Buyer Or The Seller, But Sometimes Acting As The Agent Of Both. As It Usually Happens That Brokers Apply Themselves To ...

Butter
Butter, One Of The Most Important Of The Secondary Articles Of Necessity, And, Next To Corn And Cattle, Perhaps The Most Valuable Source Of Agricultural Wealth. In Many Countries It Is Also Of Great Com Mercial Importance. All The Butter That Is Produced In England Is Consumed At Home, And ...

By Law
By-law. By-laws Are The Private Regulations Of A Society Or Corporation, Agreed Upon By The Major Part Of The Members, For More Conveniently Carrying Into Effect The Object Of The Institution. It Is Not Every Voluntary Association To Which The Law Of England Gives The Power Of Binding Dissentient Members ...

C On Cultivation And
C On Cultivation And Trade. Cotton Is Called, In French, Colon ; German, Bawnwoll E ; Dutch, Katoen, Boomwol ; Danish, Bomuld ; Swedish, Bomull ; Italian, Cotone Bamba Gia ; Spanish, Algodon ; Portuguese, Al God,ao ; Russian, C'hlobtschataja Burnt:9a ; Polish, Bawelna ; Hindustani, Mu ; Malay, Kapas ...

Cabinet
Cabinet. According To The Con Stitution Of England, The King Is Irre Sponsible, Or, As The Phrase Is, He Can Do No Wrong. The Real Responsibility Rests With His Ministers, Who Constitute What Is Termed The Cabinet. In Their Collective Capacity They Are Called Also The Administration, The Ministry, His ...

Cal Commission
Cal Commission.] The Number Of Benefices In Ireland Will Be As Follows When The Church Tempo Ralities Act Comes Into Full Operation : No. 488 Under The Annna. Value Of 150 390 Of 150 And Under 300 278 300 450 117 450 550 73 ...

Canon
Canon (nar4v), A Rule. The Seve Ral Senses In Which This Word Is Used Are All Derivatives From Its First Original Sense : And This Sense It Appears To Have Acquired, As Itself A Derivative From Canna, (we Use The Latin Form, Though In Fact Both Canna And Canon Are ...

Canon Law
Canon Law, A Collection Of Ecclesi Astical Constitutions For The Regulation Of The Church Of Rome, Consisting For The Most Part Of Ordinances Of General And Provincial Councils, Decrees Promulgated By The Popes With The Sanction Of The Car Dinals, And Decretal Epistles And Bulls Of The Popes. The Origin ...

Captain
Captain (from The French Capi Taine ; In Italian, Capitano : Both Words Are From The Latin Caput, A Head), In The Naval Service, Is An Officer Who Has The Command Of A Ship Of War, And, In The Army, Is One Who Commands A Troop Of Cavalry Or A ...

Cardinal
Cardinal (italian, Cardinale), The Highest Dignity In The Roman Church And Court Next To The Pope. The Cardinals Are The Electors Of The Pope, And His Coun Cillors. The Latin Word Cardinalis Is Used By Vitravins In His Description Of Doors. The Word Is Derived From The Latin Cardo, A ...

Catholic Church
Catholic Church (roman). Although In Ordinary Language This Name Is Often Used To Designate The Ruling Au Thority Or Power In The Catholic Religion, As If Distinct From The Members Of That Communion, Yet The Definition Which Ca Tholics Give Of The Church Is Such As To Comprehend The Entire ...

Cavalry
Cavalry (remotely From The Latin Caballus, A Horse') Is That Class Of Troops Which Serve On Horseback. In The British Army It Consists Of The Two Regiments Of Life Guards, The Royal Regiment Of Norse Guards, Seven Regiments Of Dra Goon Guards, And Seventeen Regiments Of Light Dragoons, Of Which ...

Cellor Chancery
Cellor; Chancery.] By Various Acts Of Parliament Retiring Pensions Of A Determinate Amount May Be Granted To The Fifteen Judges Of The Three Superior Courts Of Law, And To The Judges In Equity. The Lowest Retiring Pension Is 35001., And This Amount May Be Given To All Puisne Judges Of ...

Censorship Of Press
Press, Censorship Of, A Regu Lation Which Has Prevailed In Most Coun Tries Of Europe, And Still Prevails In Many, According To Which Printed Books, Pamph Lets, And Newspapers, Are Examined By Persons Appointed For The Purpose, Who Are Empowered To Prevent Publication If They See Sufficient Reason. There Are ...