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Cyclopedia of Photography

Colour
Colour (pr., Couleur ; Ger., Farbe) A Person Sitting In A Perfectly Dark Room Can See Neither The Form Nor Colour Of The Objects Around Him ; But The Moment Light Is Admitted He At Once Sees The Shape Of Objects And Also Their Colours. It Is Obvious Then That ...

Colour Sensitometry
Colour Sensitometry Soon After The Introduction Of The Colour Sensitive Plate Some Method Was Found Needful For Expressing The Added Colour Sensitiveness, And This Was Effected By Exposing A Plate In The Spectrograph And Estimating The Densities By Visual Examination Or Merely Drawing A Graphic Curve, A Test Of Great ...

Combination Printing
Combination Printing The Art Of Making A Print By The Use Of Two Or More Negatives. The Simplest Form Of Com Bination Printing Is The Printing Of A Cloud Into A Landscape, But Combination Printing Proper Is The Art Of Adding Trees, Figures, Or Other Objects To A Picture, As ...

Compensator Negatives
"compensator " Negatives A System Advocated By Newton Gibson And Published In April, 19o5, For Preventing Hala Tion Without Backing And Controlling Contrasts When Taking Difficult Subjects, Particularly Interiors. The Method Is To Place A Dry Plate, Glass Side Towards The Lens, In The Camera And To Give A Very ...

Concentrated Solution
Concentrated Solution A Solution Made Up Very Strong, Chiefly In The Form Of A Stock Developing Solution, And Needing To Be Diluted With Water Before Use ; It May Or May Not Be Saturated. It Is Not Synonymous With Saturated Solution (which See), Although Sometimes Thought To Be So. Rodinal, ...

Condenser
Condenser In Optical Projection The Condensing Lenses Cause The Rays Of Light Emitted By The Lamp Or Jet To Pierce The Transparency From All Points, The Rays Being Then Transmitted To The Objective Or Focusing Lens. Diagram A Shows The General Optical System By Which Projection Is Accom Plished, E ...

Contact Breaks
Contact Breaks Mechanical, Devices For Automatically " Mak Ing " And." Breaking " The Current Flowing. Through The Primary Winding Of An Induction Coil (which See). Several Forms Of Contact Breaks Are In Use, The Most Popular Being The Hammer, Electrolytic, And Motor-mercury Breaks. The First-named Con Sists Of A ...

Control In Printing
Control In Printing Methods Of Treating Negatives, Or Methods Of Treatment Adopted While Printing, May Be Summarised Under The Above Heading. The Object In All Cases Is The Same ; Namely, To Pro Duce A Better, A More Harmonious, Or A More Satisfactory Print Than That Which The Negative Would ...

Copying
Copying Copying Should Present No Serious Difficulty Provided Suitable Precautions Are Taken, And Correct Exposures Given. It Is Essential That The Print To Be Copied Should Be Held Perfectly Flat On A Board Which Is Parallel With The Sensi Tive Plate. If This Condition Is Not Observed, A Dis Torted ...

Copying Engravings
Engravings, Copying In Copying Engravings And Drawings The Only Difference In Working Arises From The Fact That The Subject Consists Of Black Lines On A White Ground, A Type Of Subject That Is Usually Con Sidered Difficult On A Gelatine Plate, As It Is Far From Easy To Obtain Sufficient ...

Copying Stand
Copying Stand (pr., Pied-table, Chevalet De Reproduction ; Ger., Reproduciren-stativ, Kopier-stativ) An Arrangement For Keeping The Camera And Copy Parallel When Reproducing Plans, Drawings, Photographic Prints, Etc. It Usually Consists Of An Upright Copyboard Or Easel Running On Parallel Rails, And Capable Of Being Damped In Any Position. The Camera ...

Copyright
Copyright (fr., Droit D' Auteur ; Ger., V Erlagsrecht, Urizeberrecht) Protection Against Copying And Other Forms Of Reproduction Is Granted To Photographs Equally With Paintings And Drawings. The Act By Which This Protection Is Afforded Is The Copy Right Works Of Art Act Of 1862, The Clauses Of Which Act, ...

Corona Photography
Corona Photography The Corona Is The Brilliant Pearly-white Lumin Escence Observed Round The Eclipsed Sun During A Total Solar Eclipse, When The Ordinary Brilliant Sunlight Is Obscured By The Intervention Of The Dark Moon. Many Attempts Have Been Made By Astronomers To Observe It Visually Or To Photo Graph It ...

Cosmical Photography
Cosmical Photography So Many Different Subjects Requiring Special Treatment Are Included In The General Class Of Celestial Or Cosmical Objects That For The Majority Of Them It Will Be More Satisfactory To Describe The Methods Of Photographing Them Under Their Respective Special Headings (which See Below). As Regards The Actual ...

Cowans Developer
Cowan's Developer A Formula Advocated Many Years Ago By A. Cowan For Use With Negatives. No. I .—pyrogallic Add 20 Grs. 4 G. Nitric Acid . 2 Drops '5 Ccs. Water To . . Io Oz. 1,000 „ No. 2.—strong Liquor Ammonia: . E Oz. 25 Ccs. Potassium Bro Mide ...

Cracked Negatives
Cracked Negatives Negatives Are Easily Cracked If Cheap Frames With Uneven Beds And Imperfect Springs Are Used. The Crack May At First Appear Slight And Unimportant, But In Time It Invariably Extends Across The Plate. With Care The Film On A Cracked Negative Need Not Be Broken ; Merely Bind ...

Critical Illumination
Critical Illumination In Microscopy, Critical Illumination Is Obtained By Arranging The Illuminant, Mirror, And Substage Condenser In Such A Manner That The Image Of The Lamp Flame Is Seen In The Centre Of The Field When Looking Through The Microscope. Critical Illumination Is Not Practicable With Low Powers, But It ...

Crystoleums
Crystoleums Photographs Coloured To Give The Appearance Of Direct Paintings Upon Glass ; Known Also As Chromo-photographs. The System Of Colouring Is About Two Centuries Old, And, Before The Days Of Photography, Engravings And Prints Were Used As A Base, The Process Being Known Generally As Mezzotinto Painting. The Advent ...

Daguerreotype Process
Daguerreotype Process The Earliest Commercial Photographic Process, The Invention Of Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. By Its Means A Photographic Positive Image Is Produced On A Polished Silver Surface. It Was Published In France, In July, 1839, And During The Next Twelve Years Attained Great Popularity, But The Introduction Of Frederic ...

Dark Room Illumination
Dark-room Illumination The Colour Of The Light Used For Dark-room Illu Mination Is Important, Both As Regards Its Purity And Its General Character. For Ordinary Negative Work A Pure Red, That Does Not Allow Any Blue Rays To Pass, Is Best, And For Bromide Printing A Golden Yellow Or Orange ...

Daylight Cartridges
Daylight Cartridges This Term Is Applied To Spools Of Flexible Film Used In Cameras Specially Adapted For Them. The Strip Of Film Is Attached To A Considerably Longer Strip Of Black Paper. The Spool Is Placed In Position In The Camera, And One End Of The Black Paper Is Put ...

Definition
Definition (fr., Definition ; Ger., Definition) The Degree Of Sharpness With Which Objects Are Rendered By The Lens. As A Rough Standard For Purposes Of Comparison, It Is Generally Assumed That The Allowable " Circle Of Confusion " Shall Be One-hundredth Of An Inch In Diameter —that Is To Say, ...

Desiccated Dry Plates
Desiccated Dry Plates Dried, Or Heated, Dry Plates. It Is Well Known That Dry Plates, As Ordinarily Used, Retain A Con Siderable Percentage Of Water, Mainly In Mole Cular Combination With The Gelatine. Howard Farmer, To Whom The Idea Of Desiccated Plates Is Due, Found That The Water Has A ...

Deterioration
Deterioration Lenses, Chemicals, And Sensitive Plates And Papers All Deteriorate More Or Less According To The Length Of Time And Manner In Which They Are Kept. The Commonest Form Of Lens Deterior Ation Is Due To The Gradual Depolishing Of The Glass Surface By Dust, The Action Being Assisted By ...

Developer
Developer (pr., Revelateur ; Ger., Ent Wickler) Any Agent Used To Render Visible The Latent Image, Or, In Other Words, To Reduce To Silver Or Other Metal The Latent Image Produced By The Action Of Light Upon Any Sensitive Salt. In Ordinary Photographic Phraseology The Term Is Applied To The ...

Developing
Developing This Article Will Be Devoted To A Simple Ex Planation Of The Ordinary Method And Practice Of Developing A Dry Plate. The Exposure Having Been Made, The Closed Dark-slide Is Removed To The Dark-room, And The Plate Developed Either At Once Or At Any Convenient Time Afterwards. The Work ...

Developing And Fixing Combined
Developing And Fixing Combined A System Of Developing In Which A Sufficient Amount Of " Hypo " Is Mixed With The Developer In Order That Developing And Fixing May Be Per Formed At The Same Time, A Method Thought Much Of At One Time But Little Used Nowadays. The Secret ...

Diagrammatic Lantern Slides
Lantern Slides, Diagrammatic Lantern Slides Of Diagrams And Other Line Sub Jects May Be Made In Many Ways, As, For Example, The Following : (a) Copying Through The Camera And Printing The Slide By Contact From The Nega Tive ; (b) Printing From The Drawing Itself, Which Serves As A ...

Diaphragms
Diaphragms (fr., Diaphragmes ; Ger., Blen Den) A Diaphragm Is The Aperture, Fixed Or Remov Able, Used In Front Of A Single Lens And Between The Combinations Of A Double Lens, Generally Referred To As The " Stop." The Various Forms Of Diaphragms, Systems Of Marking, Values, Etc., Are As ...

Diazotype
Diazotype There Are Several Printing Processes Based On The Light-sensitiveness Of The Diazo Compounds, Which, Although Not Much Used, Are Of Con Siderable Interest, As They Give A Great Range Of Colours. The Diazo Compounds Are Extremely Rich In Oxygen, And Are Formed By The Action Of Nitrous Acid On ...

Diffraction Grating
Diffraction Grating (fr., Reseau De Diffraction ; Ger., Diffraktions-gitter) An Opaque Screen Containing A Large Number Of Fine Skits, Or A Transparent Screen Having Opaque Lines Engraved Upon It Very Close Together. A Pencil Of Light Is Formed Of A Wave Front Or A Series Of Overlapping Waves Which May ...

Diffraction Grating Replicas
Diffraction Grating Replicas (fr., Replicas Des Reseaux De Diffraction; Ger., Digraktions-gitter-abklatsche) Original Gratings, Whether On Glass Or Metal, Are Extremely Expensive, And Numerous Attempts Have Been Made By Rayleigh, Abney, And Others To Reproduce These By Photographic Means, But The Most Successful Way Is That Of Taking Casts In Celluloid. ...

Dissolving Chemicals
Dissolving Chemicals There Is A Right And A Wrong Way Of Dissolving And Mixing Most Chemicals, And In Some Cases The Method Of Dissolving Affects The Working Powers Of The Solution. The Slowest And Possi Bly The Worst Way Of Dissolving A Chemical Is To Place It In A Bottle ...

Dollands Process
Dolland's Process A Method Of Toning And Intensifying Platino Type Prints, Worked Out By A. W. Dolland. Its Advantages Are That It Strengthens A Weak Platinum Print, And At The Same Time Changes It To A Pure Black Or Blue-black Colour. The Weak Black Picture To Be Strengthened And Toned—the ...

Double Exposures
Double Exposures Two Exposures May Be Made On One Plate— Each One Filling Half The Plate—by Having A Shield Of Metal Or Thin Wood Fitted To The Camera Back Dose To The Dark Slide. The Shield Covers Half Of The Plate While The Other Half Is Exposed ; Then The ...

Doubles
Doubles A Popular Form Of Freak Photograph, Showing Two Pictures Of The Same Person On One Plate, As, For Example, A Man Playing Cards With Himself, Etc. This Kind Of Picture Was At One Time (188o) Somewhat Popular Among Professional Photo Graphers, But The Work Is Now Almost Exclu Sively ...

Drapery For Figure Subjects
Drapery For Figure Subjects Portraits Of Draped Subjects Are Popular With Photographers Chiefly Because Drapery Offers So Many Opportunities For Artistic Treatment, Being Often More Pleasing Than Everyday Dress, Which, More Particularly In The Case Of Feminine Gar Ments, Goes So Quickly Out Of Fashion. As Regards The Material And ...

Drawings Made From Photo
Drawings Made From Photo Graphs There Are Many Methods Of Making Line Drawings From Photographs, And Most Of Them Involve The Destruction Of The Originals. In Essence, The Lines Of The Photograph Are Gone Over With Waterproof Ink And The Photograph Then Bleached. Matt Prints On Bromide, Gas Light, Or ...

Dress For Sitters
Dress For Sitters The Part Played By Dress In Photography Is An Important One ; And A Question Put Frequently To The Photographer Is : " What Dress Shall I Wear ? " As A General Rule The More Simple The Dress The Better If The Portrait Is To Be ...

Dry Plates
Dry Plates (fr., Plaques Seches ; Ger., Trockenplallen) Sheets Of Glass Of Given Sizes Coated With Gela Tine Emulsions. The Term Arose In The Early Days To Differentiate Them From Wet Collodion Plates. The Introduction Of The Gelatine Dry Plate Marked A New Epoch In Photography. There Is Some Difference ...

Drying Box Or Cupboard
Drying Box Or Cupboard (pr., Etuve, Armoire ; Ger., Trockenofen) A Light-tight Box Or Cupboard Used In Drying Gelatine Plates After Coating, And For Othcr Photo Graphic Purposes. The Chief Requirement Is The Circulation Of A Current Of Dry Air, In Order That The Internal Air May Be Continuously Drawn ...

Drying Marks
Drying Marks These In Negatives Are Most Frequently Patches Or Portions Which Are Stronger Or Weaker Than The Remainder Of The Image, Such Portions Pro Ducing Corresponding Defects In The Print. These Markings May Be Due To Defective Working, Or To Causes Beyond The Worker's Control. With Regard To The ...

Dufay Dioptichrome Process
Dufay Dioptichrome Process This Employs A Screen Plate Of French Manu Facture. A Gelatinised Glass Is Coated As To Two Thirds Of Its Surface With A Greasy Material, Which Acts As A Temporary Resist, In The Form Of Lines, Points, Or Grains Of Geometric Or Irregular Shape. The Present Plate ...

Dust Prevention
Dust Prevention Dust Is Often A Great Trouble In Photographic Work, Both In The Field And In The Work-room. Dust In The Camera And On The Lens Is The Most Frequent Cause Of Trouble, Hand Cameras Being More Prone To The Defect Than Others Because Of The Usual Practice Of ...

Dusting On Powder Process
Dusting-on (powder) Process (pr., Procede Aux Poudres ; Ger., Einstaubver Fahrung) Known Also As The " Powder Process," Based, As Are The Other Carbon Processes, Upon The Oxidising Action Of Chromic Salts Upon Organic Matters. In The Present Instance, The Organic Matter Loses Its Tackiness Or Stickiness Under The Action ...

Dusting Or Graining In
Dusting Or Graining In Process Work (fr., Grainage ; Ger., Staub Hornung) There Are Several Processes Of Photo-engraving Dependent On The Laying Of A Ground Consisting Of Fine Resin, Bitumen, Or Other Similar Material. Such A Method Is Used For Aquatint Etching Instead Of The Old Way Of Flowing On ...

Dyes As Colour Sensitisers
Dyes As Colour Sensitisers The Peculiar Property Possessed By Certain Dyes Of Conferring Upon The Silver Halides In Creased Colour Sensitiveness Was Discovered By Vogel In 1873, Has Had A Most Important Influ Ence On The Advancement Of Photography In Almost Every Branch, And Since His Time The Number Of ...

Edinol
Edinol (fr. And Ger., Edinol) A Developer, Known Also As " Paramol," Under Which Name It Was Originally Introduced In Iooi, But The Two Agents Are Stated By Some Not To Be Exactly The Same. It Occurs In A Faint Yellowish Crystalline Powder, Having The Formula Oh And It Is ...

Eikonogen
Eikonogen (pr., Iconogene ; Ger., Eikonogen) A Developer Introduced By Dr. M. Andresen In 1889 ; It Appears In A Yellowish White Powder Or Yellowish Crystals When Fresh, But Rapidly Changes To A Brownish Tinge. Its Formula Is (oh) Ona. It Is Sparingly Soluble In Water, But Readily So In ...

Electric Light
Electric Light (fr., Lumiere Electrique ; Ger., Elektrisches Licht) The Electric Light Is The Most Practically Useful Artificial Illuminant For Photographic Purposes. Where Public Mains Are Not Accessible, A Small Dynamo, Driven By A Gas-engine, Offers The Most Convenient Means Of Installation. Apart From The Initial Expense Of The Dynamo ...

Electrotyping
Electrotyping (fr., Electrotypage, Galvano Plastie ; Ger., Galvanoplastik) A Process By Which Engraved Plates, Type Formes, Etc., Are Reproduced. They Are Pressed Into A Layer Of Beeswax, The Resulting Mould Is Blackleaded By Brushing Or By Spraying With A Solution Of Blacklead, To Make The Surface Cou Ductive, And The ...

Element
Element (fr., Element ; Ger., Element) This Term Has Been Applied By Chemists To Those Substances Which Cannot, By Any Known Means, Be Split Up Into Other And Simpler Forms Of Matter. The Following Table Is A List Of Them, With The Symbol And Atomic Weight Of Each. The Symbol, ...

Emulsion
Emulsion (pr., Emulsion ; Ger., Emulsion) A Liquid, Usually Viscous, Containing In Suspension An Insoluble Body In An Extremely Finely Divided State. Plates, Films, And Bromide, Gaslight And Printing-out Papers Are Coated With Emulsions. To Such Perfection Has The Commercial Manufacture Of These Articles Attained That It Will Hardly Pay ...

Enamelling Prints
Enamelling Prints (fr., Emaillure ; Ger., Emailleiren) The Process Of Enamelling Prints Must Not Be Confused With Burnishing, And Other Methods Of Glazing. Enamelling Proper With Collodion Gives The Highest Possible Gloss. The Method Described Below Is Suitable For All Kinds Of Prints, But Particularly For Collodion Prints : Procure ...

Encaustic Paste
Encaustic Paste (pr., Colle Encaustique Ger., Enkaustische Kleister) Known Also As Cerate Paste ; A Mixture For Rubbing On To The Surface Of Prints In Order To Give Them A Gloss, Deepen The Shadows, And Brighten Them Up Generally. The Gloss Obtain Able Is Very Pleasing, But Not So High ...

Engineering Photography
Engineering Photography Most Of The Technical Considerations That Apply To Architectural Photography Apply Equally Well To Engineering Subjects. The Truth Of Vertical Lines Must Always Be Preserved By Keeping The Features That Cannot Be Seen From Any Other Position. One Of The Most Important Considera Tions In Engineering Photography Must ...

Engraving
Engraving A Term Given To Processes In Which, By Photo Graphy And Subsequent Manipulation, A Printing Surface Is Obtained In Which The Parts Receiving Ink Stand Up In Relief Like Type Characters. Thus Line And Half-tone Etched Blocks May Be Said To Be Photo-relief Engravings, But The Term Is Pro ...

Enlarging
Enlarging The Operation Of Enlarging Consists Simply In Taking A Print From A Negative By Means Of A Lens Instead Of By Placing A Paper In Contact With The Surface Of The Negative In The Usual Manner. The Essential Parts Of The Apparatus Required Are A Holder For The Negative ...

Enlarging Camera
Enlarging Camera (fr., Chambre D' Dissement ; Ger., Vergrasserungshamera) A Camera For Making Enlarged Photographs On Bromide Paper, Or Enlarged Negatives, From Smaller Negatives Or Positives. It Consists Essentially Of A Carrier Or Holder For The Negative, A Dark-slide Or Frame For The Bromide Paper, And, Between These, A Support ...

Enlarging Easel
Easel, Enlarging (pr., Chevalet D'agran Dissement, Chevalet D Reproduction ; Ger., Vergrosserungs-stativ) A Support To Hold The Bromide Paper During The Operation Of Enlarging. In Order To Ensure Parallelism With The Negative In The Enlarging Camera Or Lantern, The Easel Is Made To Run On Rails ; Or It Is ...

Enlarging Lantern
Enlarging Lantern (fr., Lantern D'agrandissement ; Ger., Vergrosserungs Apparat) A Lantern Used In Enlarging By Artificial Light, To Project A Magnified Image Of The Negative On The Bromide Paper. It Consists Of A Body Carry Ing The Illymittant, A Condenser To Concentrate The Light On The Negative And Cause It ...

Enlarging Negatives
Enlarging Negatives In Order To Make A Large Negative From A Small One, Two Operations Are Necessary. A Trans Parent Positive Must Be Made From The Original Negative, And From That A New Negative Can Be Made By Enlarging To Any Desired Size. The Character Of The Transparent Positive Is ...

Enlarging By Artificial Light
Enlarging By Artificial Light The Principal Difference Between Enlarging By Daylight And By Artificial Light Consists In The Method Of Illuminating The Negative Evenly And With Sufficient Strength To Obtain An Enlarge Ment In A Reasonable Time. A Necessary Element Is A Condensing Lens For Collecting The Light And Presenting ...

Enlarging By Daylight
Enlarging By Daylight This Method Gives Greater Opportunity For Varied Methods Of Working To Suit The Conditions Of Different Photographers Than Does Enlarging By Artificial Light. The Apparatus And The Man Ner Of Using It May Range From The Simple And Inexpensive Fixed-focus Enlarger Up To A Per Manently Arranged ...

Etc Colouring Photographs
Colouring Photographs, Etc. The Three Popular Processes For Colouring Prints And Slides Are By Means Of Aniline Dyes, Water Colours, And Oil Colours. Colouring By The Crystoleum Process (which See) Is Also Widely Practised. Aniline Dyes, Although Not So Per Manent As Water Colours, Have Largely Super Seded The Latter, ...

Etc Varnishing Negatives
Varnishing Negatives, Etc. The Object Of Varnishing Is To Protect The Gela Tine Film From Scratches, Damp, Etc., And To Pre Vent Silver Staining Due To The Absorption Of Damp By Both Papers And Negatives. Hot Process.—the Negative Is Warmed To Drive Out All Moisture, And Then Allowed To Cool. ...

Etching
Etching (fr., Morsure ; Ger., Aetzung) The Incision Of Metals By Means Of Acids Or Other Corrosive Fluids, As Distinguished From Engraving, Which Implies Incision By Cutting With A Graver. Etching May Be Of Two Kinds : (i) The Older Form Consists In Spreading An Acid Resisting Coating, Or " ...

Etching Solutions
Etching Solutions For Zinc Etching Nitric Acid Is Invariably Used, The Strength Varying From I To 20 Per Cent. According To The Stage Of The Etching And The Nature Of The Work. The Bath Has To Be Constantly Rocked Whilst The Plate Is Being Etched. A " Still " Etching ...

Exposure
Exposure It Is Scarcely Necessary To Emphasise The Great Importance Of Correct Exposure In Negative Making ; But It May Be Remarked That When The Plate Has Been Correctly Exposed, All Subsequent Work Is Comparatively Simple And Straight Forward, Whereas With An Incorrectly Exposed Plate All The Subsequent Operations Are ...

Exposure Meter
Exposure Meter (fr., Photometre, Luci Metre, Actimometre ; Ger., Expositions Messer, Belichtungsmesser, Aktinometer) An Instrument For Ascertaining The Necessary Duration Of Exposure When Taking A Photograph. The Terms " Exposure Meter " And " Actino Meter " Are Often Used Interchangeably, But The Latter Refers To An Appliance For Simply ...

Eyepiece
Eyepiece (pr., Oculaire ; Ger., Okular) The Lens, Or Combination Of Lenses, Which Receives The Image From The Microscope Objec Tive And Conveys It To The Eye. The Best Known Types Of Eyepieces Are The Huyghenian, The Ramsden, And The Kellner. The Huyghenian, Which Is The Most Popular, Is A ...

Factorial Development
Development, Factorial A System Of Determining The Duration Of Development By Noting The Time Of Appearance Of The First Trace Of An Image On The Plate And Multiplying This Time By A Factor, The Result Being The Total Duration Of Development Required To Produce A Negative Of Given Density. This ...

Ferric Oxalate
Ferric Oxalate (fr., Oxalate Ferrique; Ger., Ferrioxalat) Synonym, Iron Sesquioxalate. Fe, Molecular Weight, 376. Solubilities, Very Soluble In Water, Insoluble In Alcohol. It Occurs In Greenish, Glistening Scales, Which Are Extremely Sensitive To Light, And It Is Therefore Usually Preferred To Mix It In Solution And Preserve In The Dark. ...

Ferrotype Process
Ferrotype Process (fr., Proctde Ferro Type; Ger., Ferrotypie) About The Middle Of The Nineteenth Century The Term " Ferrotype " Was Applied To The Process Introduced By Robert Hunt As " Energiatype " (which See), But That Process Was But Little Used, And The Modern Ferrotype Is Quite Different. Ferrotypes ...

Ferrous Oxalate Developer
Ferrous Oxalate Developer One Of The Oldest Developers For Plates And Bromide Papers, Announced In 1877 Simultan Eously By Carey Lea And Willis, Of America And England Respectively, Now Almost Entirely Re Placed By The Newer Organic Developers. It Has The Great Advantage Of Giving An Image In Pure Metallic ...

Field Camera
Field Camera (fr., Chambre De Touriste, Chambre De Voyage, Chambre Portative ; Ger., Reisekamera, Landschafts-kamera) Field Cameras Are Necessarily Designed To Obtain The Maximum Of Compactness And The Minimum Of Weight Consistent With Steadiness. Since They Will Be More Exposed To Atmospheric And Climatic Influences Than Indoor Cameras, The Workmanship ...

Field Of Lens
Field Of Lens The Imaginary Surface At Which The Sharpest Image That Can Be Given Is Formed. With A Theoretically Perfect Lens, This Would Be A Plane, But In Practice The Field Is Usually Concave, Occasionally Convex, And In The Case Of Most Anastigmats, Plane With An Annular Depression At ...

Figure Studies
Figure Studies Portraiture Is Mainly Directed To Securing A " Likeness," While Figure Studies Are Generally Intended To Show Character, Costume, Occupation, And So On. Renderings Of Figures In Homely Surroundings, Or Engaged In Somewhat Humble Everyday Occupations, Are Generally Classed As " Genre." The Great Thing To Avoid In ...

Filigrane
Filigrane A Photographic Process For Water-marking Paper, Invented By W. B. Woodbury. A Gelatine Relief Of The Design Is Made By The Woodbury Type Process, And When Thoroughly Hard And Dry Is Passed Through A Rolling Press With The Paper To Be Water-marked. The Result Is That The Paper Is ...

Film Manipulation
Film Manipulation The Use Of Films, Both Flat And Rollable, Has Become During Recent Years More And More Popular, And There Has Been Much Discussion As To Whether These Or Plates Are The More Advantageous, Although, Results Alone Con Sidered, There Is No Difference Between Them. The Developers, Fixers, Intensifiers, ...

Film Stripping
Film Stripping Films May Easily Be Stripped From Their Glass Supports And Transferred As Required, This Course Often Being Necessary When The Glass Of A Nega Tive Is Cracked And The Film Is Undamaged. In Reversing A Negative For Single Transfer Carbon Or Collotype Work, The Stripping Method Is Also ...

Finger Print Photography
Finger - Print Photography (pr., Photographie D Marque De Doigt ; Ger., Fingerspur Photographie) The Photography And Systematic Registration Of Finger-prints Has Become Of Immense Import Ance In The Detection Of Crime. The Methods Employed May Be Divided Into Two Classes: (1) Those Used When The Individual Whose Finger Prints ...

Firelight Effects
Firelight Effects Effects Represented In Photographs Appearing To Have Been Taken By The Fireside And By The Light Of The Fire. Firelight Is Too Weak To Illuminate The Sitter For Photographic Purposes Without An Undue Exposure, And Artificial Aids Are Necessary. Daylight Is The Most Satisfactory Light For The Purpose, ...

Fixing
Fixing The Term " Fixing " Is A Misnomer, As, Instead Of Making Permanent Something That Is Desired, It Removes Something That Is Not Desired, And Which, If Left In The Negative Or Print, Would Seriously Impair It. Fixing, In Photography, Means The Removal Of Any Sensitive Salt Unacted Upon ...

Fixing Hardening Baths
Fixing-hardening Baths Solutions For Hardening The Films Of Plates And Papers And At The Same Time Fixing The Image. Their Use Does Not Yield Such Permanent Results As The Use Of Separate Fixing And Hardening Baths. (see " Hardeners.") The Best Known Formulae Are :— Alum " Hypo " Alum ...

Flash Lamp
Flash Lamp (fr., Lampe Eclair; Ger., Blitz Lampe, Magnesiumlampe) In Its Original Sense, A Lamp For Burning Mag Nesium Powder, Which Is Blown Through A Spirit Or Gas Flame. A Simple Type Of Flash Lamp May Be Made As Shown At A, With A Short Metal Pipe Bent To A ...

Flashlight Photography
Flashlight Photography The Taking Of Photographs By Means Of Flashes Of Artificial Light, The Light Being Generally Produced By Burning Magnesium Or Flashlight Mixtures. Magnesium Was Made Known In 18o8 By Sir Humphry Davy, But For Half A Century Or More It Was Regarded As A Curiosity. In 1859 Bunsen, ...