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Or Developing Cham Ber
Or Developing Cham Ber (fr., Laboratoire ; Ger., Dunkel Zimmer, Dunkelkamnser) A Room Or Cupboard Devoted Principally To The Operation Of Development, And From Which All White Or Actinic Light Is Excluded. Until A. J. P. Claudet Patented, In The 'forties, The Use Of Coloured Media, Preferably Red, The Devel ...

Ortol
Ortol (pr. And Ger., Ortol) Hauff's Developer, Containing Orthomethylami Dophenol, Oh And Hydroquinoni Introduced From Germany In 1897 ; In Charac Ter, Intermediate Between Metol And Pyro-soda. It Is A Yellowish-white Crystalline Powder, Very Soluble In Water, With Which It Forms A Colourless Solution Which Gives A Blackish Image. It ...

Ownership Of Negatives
Negatives, Ownership Of Questions As To The Ownership Of The Copyright In Negatives And The Ownership Of The Negatives Themselves Constantly Arise In Professional Work. Taking The Ordinary Case In Which A Photographer Makes, To The Order Of A Customer, A Negative And Supplies Prints From It, The Copyright Is ...

Ozobrome
Ozobrome A Method Of Producing Carbon Pictures From Bromide Prints, Patented By Thomas Manly, In 1905. Its Advantage Is That It Makes The Worker Independent Of Daylight. Bromide Enlargements Can Be Made For Producing Carbon Pictures, Thus Saving The Trouble And Expense Of Making Enlarged Negatives. Whether The Carbon Image ...

Ozotype
Ozotype A Pigmented Gelatine Process, Patented By Thomas Manly In 1899, Differing From The Usual Carbon Method. Sized Paper Is Coated With A Solution Containing A Bichromate And A Man Ganous Salt. This Preparation Is Sensitive To Light, And Under A Negative Produces A Positive Image In Manganese Chromate. A ...

Packing Plates
Packing Plates The Question Of Packing—or, Rather, Re-packing —plates After Exposure Is Of Importance To The Tourist. He Should Remember Not To Throw Away The Outer Wrapper And The Inner Packings, As These Will Come In Useful. The Best Way To Remove The Outer Wrapper From A Box Is To ...

Panchromatic Plates
Panchromatic Plates Plates Made Sensitive To The Entire Spectrum, And Used Either For Isochromatic Photography With A Suitable Screen Where A Full Colour Render Ing Is Required, Or For Colour Photography By The Three-colour Process. They Can Be Made By Bathing Slow Ordinary Plates With Certain Aniline Dyes, Particularly Some ...

Paper
Paper (fr. And Ger., Papier) The Raw Material Of Paper Is Linen, Cotton-wool, Hemp, Flax, Esparto Grass And Wood Pulp ; But For Photographic Purposes The Absence Of The Last Two Substances Is Essential, Save In Such Processes As Carbon, Where The Paper Only Forms A Tem Porary Support For ...

Paper Negatives
Paper Negatives Fox Talbot, In His Calotype Process, Worked Extensively Between 184r And R856, Made His Negatives From Paper Coated With A Sensitive Silver Salt, But This System Became Almost Obso Lete When Archer Introduced His Collodion Process On Glass. About 1885, However, Paper As A Medium For Negatives Again ...

Papyroxyline
Papyroxyline (fr., Papyroxyline ; Ger., Papyroxylin) Pyroxyline Prepared From Paper, Usually Pure Tissue Or Filter Papers, Instead Of From Cotton Wool. It Was First Introduced By Pelouze In 1838, And Used By Crookes, Lyte, Elliott, Sutton, And Liesegang. It Presents No Particular Advan Tage Over Pyroxyline Prepared From Cotton-wool, And ...

Parallax Stereogram
Parallax Stereogram An Invention Of P. E. Ives, Of America. The Parallax Stereogram Photograph Consists Of A Single Transparent Image Divided Into Lines ( Roo To 15o To The Inch), Alternate Lines Forming One Of A Stereoscopic Pair Of Images, And The Inter Mediate Lines Forming The Other Image, So ...

Patents
Patents The Governments Of The Civilised Countries Grant Inventors The Sole Right To Their Inventions For A Term Of Years, In Consideration Of A Full Disclosure Of The Invention, The Payment Of Certain Fees, And Conformity To Certain Regula Tions. Application For A British Patent May Be Made In Two ...

Pellet Process
Pellet Process An Iron (blue-print) Process—the True Cyano Type, Which Gives Blue Lines On A White Ground When A Copy Is Made From A Line Tracing. It Is A " Positive From Positive " Process, And Unsuit Able For Use With Ordinary Negatives Because Negative Prints Would Then Be Obtained. ...

Perfect Negative
Negative, Perfect The Term " Perfect Negative " Is Frequently Met With In Photographic Literature ; But A Negative That Is Perfect For One Printing Process May Be Quite Unsuitable For Another One. A Nice-looking, Clean Negative, Say, One Developed With Hydroquinone, Will Often Give A Print Far Inferior To ...

Permanency
Permanency The Stability Of A Photographic Image Is Deter Mined Primarily By The Process By Which It Was Produced, But It Is Limited By The Durability Of The Medium On Which The Image Is Supported. If The Image Will Endure Without Serious Loss Of Quality As Long As The Medium ...

Perspective
Perspective (fr., Perspective; Ger., Pers Pektive) Assuming That Lenses Are Free From Distortion, That They Are Opposite The Centre Of The Plate, And That The Plate Is Vertical, All Lenses Will Give The Same Drawing Or Perspective From The Same Standpoint. If The Focal Lengths Vary, More Or Less Of ...

Pesculin
Pesculin (fr., Iesculine ; Ger., Zeskulin, Schillerstog) Synonyms, Esculine, Esculin, Esculinic Acid, Polychrome, Bicolorin, Enallachrom. An Ex Tract Obtained From The Bark Of The Horse Chestnut (iesculus Hippocastanum). C15h1609. Molecular Weight, 340. A White Powder, A Solution Of Which, Of A Strength Of About I Part In 50o Parts Of ...

Phenakistoscope
Phenakistoscope Synonym, Stroboscope. An Instrument In Vented Simultaneously, By, Plateau, Of Ghent, And Stampfer, Of Vienna, In The Year 1832. It Has Been Made In Various Forms, An Example Of Which Is Illustrated. Two Discs Are Mounted On A Common Spindle ; They Rotate In The Same Direction And At ...

Phosphate Plates And Papers
Phosphate Plates And Papers Plates Or Papers Coated With An. Emulsion In Which Silver Phosphate Is Practically The Light Sensitive Salt The Light-sensitiveness Of This 26 Substance Was Discovered By Stromeyer About 183o, But Fyfe, About Nine Years Later, Was The First To Use It For Printing Out, And He ...

Phosphorescence
Phosphorescence The Researches Of T. A. Vaughton And Others Seem To Have Demonstrated That The Sensitive Silver Salts, Such As The Bromide, Iodide And Chloride, If Precipitated And Kept In The Dark, Have The Property, Under Certain Conditions, Of Emitting Light In Degrees Proportionate To Their Sensitiveness. In A Red ...

Photo Lithography
Photo-lithography Under This Term Is Included A Large Number Of Processes Which May Be Classified Into Two Leading Divisions—namely, Transfer Processes And Direct Processes, Both Of Which May Be Sub Divided Into Line And Half-tone. The Transfer Processes Are All Based On The Principle That Light Acting On A Bichromatised ...

Photo Salts
Photo Salts A Name Given First By Carey Lea To The Coloured Reduction Product Formed By The Action Of Light On Silver Chloride, And Later Applied Generally To The Coloured Salts Obtained Chemically By Lea, Who Considered The Coloured Reduction Product To Be C. Chemical Combination Of Silver Chloride Aga ...

Photogrammetry
Photogrammetry (fr., Photogrammetrie, Metrophotographie ; Ger., Photogrammetrie, Messbildverfahrung) The Science Of Measuring And Surveying By The Aid Of Photography. The Camera Is Exten Sively Used In The Preparation Of Maps And For Other Topographical Purposes. With A High Class Lens Free From Distortion, A Rigid Camera And Stand, And A ...

Photographing Bullets In Flight
Bullets In Flight, Photographing The First Attempt To Photograph A Projectile In Flight Is Said To Have Been Made At Woolwich Arsenal In I 86o. Owing To The Slow Wet-plate Process Used, The Results Were Unsatisfactory. In 1884 Some Experiments Were Made At Prague By Mach And Wentzel Which Were ...

Photographing Comets
Comets, Photographing The First Attempt To Portray The Form Of A Comet Was In The Case Of Donati's Comet Of 1858, But The Results Were Very Imperfect, Owing To The Photographic Processes Being Then In Their Infancy. The First Useful Photographic Cometary Records Are Of Tebbutt's Comet Of 1881. The ...

Photographing Eclipses
Eclipses, Photographing The Portrayal Of The Varying Phases Of An Eclipse, Whether Of The Sun Or Moon, Is Always Of Interest To The Photographer. The Exact Times At Which These Phenomena Will Occur Can Always Be Ascertained A Considerable Time In Advance From The Almanacs, Thus Enabling The Photo Grapher ...

Photographing Exteriors
Exteriors, Photographing The General Technical Considerations That Have To Be Observed In Photographing Exterior Views Of Buildings, Etc., Are Given Under The Heading " Architectural Photography." There Are, How Ever, Several Special Considerations Which Cannot Apply In The Same Manner In Interior Work. Speaking Generally, A Long-focus, Rather Than A ...

Photographing Fireworks
Fireworks, Photographing Fireworks Really Photograph Themselves When Once The Camera Is Ready. A Stand Camera Must Be Used, Or A Hand Camera Fixed Upon Some Suitable Support, As It Is Impossible To Hold A Camera In The Hand Still Enough For The Neces Sary Exposure. The Camera Must Be Focused ...

Photographing Fish
Fish, Photographing This Is A Branch Of Nature Photography Offer Ing A Field Of Peculiarly Interesting Work. The Most Important Part Of The Outfit Is A Good Stand Camera, With A Modern Anastigmat, Working At F/6. Isochromatic Plates Should Always Be Used, Where Possible, In Conjunction With A Compensat Ing ...

Photographing Insects
Insects, Photographing The Photographing Of Insects Falls Naturally Under Two Heads—namely, Photographing Living Insects, And Photographing Dead, Set Specimens. Living Insects Should Be Photographed In Their Natural Environment, The Caterpillars On Their Favourite Food-plant, The Butterfly Or Moth Upon The Flower, Tree-trunk, Wall, Or Other Situation Which It Most Frequents. ...

Photographing Interiors
Interiors, Photographing In Addition To The Considerations Given Under The Heading " Architectural Photography," There Are A Few Special Points That Should Be Noted. The View Of An Interior Of A Room, Of A Church, Or Portion Of A Large Building, Must Necessarily Be Taken From Within Its Own Limits ...

Photographing Lightning
Lightning, Photographing The First Successful Photograph Of A Lightning Flash Was Taken On A Dry Plate On September 2, 1882. Lightning Cannot Be Photographed During The Daytime, As, However Dark The Sky Is, The Sun Is Behind It And Actinic Enough To Have An Action Upon The Dry Plate, And ...

Photographing Paintings
Paintings, Photographing The General Principles To Be Observed In Photo Graphing Paintings Are Given Under The Heading Copying," But The Arrangement For Holding The Original And The Camera So That The Picture And The Sensitive Plate Are Parallel Cannot Often Be Employed. Carefully Ruled Pencil Lines On The Focusing Screen, ...

Photographing Silverware
Silverware, Photographing The Task Of Rendering Silver As Silver Is A Difficult One, And The Secret Of Success Lies In The Lighting And The Use Of Backed Plates. The Operator Should Remember That The Angle Of Reflection Is Always Equal To The Angle Of Inci Dence ; Thus, At Whatever ...

Photographing Stars
Stars, Photographing The Various Methods Of Photographing Stars Are So Numerous That The Most Important Of Them Will Be Best Treated Under Special Headings, As Noted Below. In General The Science Of Astrophotography May Be Divided Into Two Main Classes, Depending On Whether The Photographic Camera Is Stationary, Or Is ...

Photographing By Invisible Rays
Invisible Rays, Photographing By The Fact That Photography Can Depict Objects Invisible To The Eye Has Long Been Known. Fox Talbot Referred To The Subject In His Book, " The Pencil Of Nature," Published In T844, And His Own Words Are " Among The Many Novel Ideas Which The Discovery ...

Photographing In Factories
Factories, Photographing In Taking Photographs In Factories Or Workshops Presents Difficulties From Several Independent Causes. The First Is That Work In Progress Can Not Always Be Stopped While The Exposures Are Made, And The Consequent Movement Cannot Always Be Prevented. Then Machinery And Shafting In Constant Motion Introduce The Serious ...

Photographing The Moon
Moon, Photographing The (fr. Photographic De La Lune ; Ger., Mond Photographie) The Photographer Who Wishes To Apply His Art To Astronomical Matters Cannot Do Better Than Begin With The Portrayal Of The Features Of The Moon, Which, As Is Well Known, Is Our Nearest Celestial Neighbour. Creditable Work May ...

Photographing The Sun
Sun, Photographing The Very Little Interest Attaches To Photographs Of The Sun Taken With Cameras Fitted With Lenses Of Ordinary Focal Lengths, But Good Results May Be Obtained By Means Of Medium Or High-power Telephoto Equipments. If The Equivalent Focal Length Is Sufficient To Give An Image About I In. ...

Photographs In Relief
Relief, Photographs In In The Many Processes Of Making Photographs In Relief, The Well-known Property Of Chromated Gelatine Losing Its Water-absorptive Power After Exposure To Light Is Taken Advantage Of. Negatives Having Over-strong Contrasts Give The Most Satisfactory Results ; In Producing Such A Negative, The Background Should Be Black ...

Photographs On China
China, Photographs On There Are Several Methods Of Printing Photo Graphs Upon China, Crockery, Opal, Etc. For Objects Where The Picture Is To Be Viewed By Reflected And Not Transmitted Light, The Carbon, Process (which See) Is Perhaps The Best ; Tissue Of Any Colour May Of Course Be Used, ...

Photography By Artificial Light
Artificial Light, Photography By Photography By Artificial Light Presents No Serious Difficulty If Proper Precautions Are Taken, And D Correct Exposure Given. It Is Imperative That The Source Of Light Should Be In Such A Position That No Direct Rays Reach The Lens. When It Is Unavoidable That The Source ...

Photography In Advertising
Advertising, Photography In Photographs Are Extensively Resorted To In The Production Of Effective Pictorial Advertise Ments Reproduced By The Half-tone Process. They Are Only Occasionally Used In The Form Of Straight Prints, But Are Nearly Always " Worked Up " By Skilled Artists Into What Are Actually Monochrome Wash Drawings. ...

Photography In Mines
Mines, Photography In With The Advent Of The Dry Plate, The Modern Lens And The Actinic Flash Powders, Photography In Mines Has Become Much More Easy. The Bunch Of Magnesium Ribbon, Lime-light Apparatus And Portable Lamps Have All Been Superseded. In Gassy Mines, The Use Of Flashlight Mixtures Is Inadmissible, ...

Photography In Natural Colours
Natural Colours, Photography In This Subject Is Of Such Vast Extent And Is Divided Into So Many Branches, Which Are Treated Of Individually, That A Mere Sketchy Outline Of The Whole Subject Can Be Given Here. The Subject May Be Divided Into Four Main Heads : (a) Direct Heliochromy, (b) ...

Photography Of Animals
Animals, Photography Of This Branch Of Photographic Work Is One That Has Received Increasing Attention As Improve Ments Have Been Made In Lenses, Plates, Appara Tus, And Special Devices. The Reflex Camera And The Telephoto Lens, Especially, Have Been Effective Helps To The Natural History Photographer. Animal Photography May Be ...

Photography Of Birds
Birds, Photography Of Most Of The Methods Used In The Photography Of Animals (see " Animals, Photography Of,' " Zoological Photography," Etc.) Apply Also In The Case Of Birds. There Are Other Points, How Ever, To Be Taken Into Account. Many Birds Are Not Only Small In Size, But Are ...

Photography Of Children
Children, Photography Of The Success Or Failure In Photographing A Child Is Nearly Always Dependent On The Ability Of The Operator To Gain The Confidence Of His Juvenile Sitter. In The Case Of Amateur Work, The Child Is Often Personally Acquainted With The Photographer, But In Professional Work The Child ...

Photography Of Flowers And
Flowers And Fruit, Photography Of In This Work Success Depends On The Lighting, The Arrangement Of The Subject, And The Method Of Exposure. Flowers And Fruit May Be Photo Graphed Indoors Or Out, In Their Natural Sur Roundings Or Otherwise ; But The Best Results Are Obtained By Arranging Them ...

Photography Of Plant Life
Plant Life, Photography Of The Life History Of A Plant From The First Shoot To The Mature Growth, The Opening Of A Leaf-bud, And The Unfurling Of The Leaves, The Expansion Of A Blossom, And The Various Types Of Fruits Are Examples Of Plant Life That Will Yield Interesting Photographs. ...

Photography Of Reptiles
Reptiles, Photography Of The Most Useful Camera For Photographing Reptiles Is A Reflex, Fitted With As Silent A Release As Possible, And A Lens Of Fairly Long Focus. Snakes And Lizards, Toads, Frogs, And Tortoises Are All More Or Less Shy Creatures, Easily Alarmed (the First-named Are Easily Angered), So ...

Photography Of Splashes And
Splashes And Drops, Photography Of The Photographs Of Splashes Taken By A. M. Worthington, F.r.s., And R. S. Cole, M.a., And Shown At The Royal Institution In 1894, Were Obtained By Allowing A Drop To Fall In Absolute Darkness, And Illuminating It At Any Desired Stage By A Leyden Jar ...

Photomicrography
Photomicrography The Photography Of Minute Objects By The Aid Of The Microscope. The Essential Apparatus In Cludes Microscope And Stand, Lenses And Camera, And It May Be Said That Many Kinds Of Hand Cameras Can Be Utilised. A Stage Or Base Board Is Necessary To Receive The Microscope And Camera ...

Phototegie
Phototegie A Process Introduced By Couste, In Roo4, For Making Transparencies, And Reversed Or Duplicate Negatives. The Negative Should Be Exposed As Usual And Developed With Any Developer Except Gyro Till The Deepest Shadows Are Seen On The Back Of The Film ; It Is Next Well Washed, And The ...

Phototincture
Phototincture Villain's Process, Invented In 1891, For The Production Of Photographs On Fabrics And Paper By Means Of Dyes. The Fabric Is Sensitised By A Few Seconds' Immersion In A Solution Of Ammon. Bic.hromate . 5 Oz. 55o G. Ammon. Vanadate . 240 Grs. 55 „ Water . . . ...

Pictorial Composition
Composition, Pictorial Composition Is The Placing Or Arrangement Of The Different Component Parts Of A Picture In Such A Manner That The Result Is Pleasing And Harmonious. Much Has Been Said And Written About The So-called " Laws " Of Composition. The Use Of The Term " Laws " Is ...

Pigmenting
Pigmenting Under The Headings " Oil-pigment Process " And " Bromoil " Have Been Indicated The Means By Which A Print Is Obtained In Gelatine Relief, And In Each Case It Remains To Produce The Actual Picture By The Application Of A Pigment Or Ink. At Least One Brush Of ...

Pinhole Photography
Pinhole Photography Photography By Means Of A Pinhole Camera, That Is, A Camera In Which (see A) Instead Of A Lens There Is A Small Hole Made By A Needle In A Metal Plate, Card, Etc. If A Pinhole Is Pierced Through One Side Of A Light-tight Box, The Light ...

Pizzighellis Process
Pizzighelli's Process In This Is Used A Print-out Platinum Paper Invented By Capt. Pizzighelli, Of Vienna, In 1887. The Exposure May Be Judged As Accurately As With Ordinary P.o.p., And Development Of The Paper Is Unnecessary. Any Good Plain Paper May Be Used,, And The Sensitiser May Be As • ...

Plain Salted Paper Printing
Plain (salted) Paper Printing This Employs A Paper Sensitised By Immersing In A Soluble Chloride, And Floated Afterwards In A Bath Of Silver Nitrate. The Paper Is Either Only Slightly Sized Or Not Sized At All, With The Result That The Original Surface Or Texture Of The Paper Is Retained, ...

Plate Backings
Backings, Plate A Backing Is A Coating Upon The Plain (glass) Side Of A Dry Plate In Order To Prevent Reflections Progress Of Development And The Density Of The Image. One Of The Commercial Backings Dis Solves Hi The Developer Without Affecting The Working. Perhaps The Best Of The Home-made ...

Platinum Toning
Platinum Toning The Theory Of Platinum Toning Is The Same As That Of Gold Toning, Explained Under That Heading, Except, Of Course, That Platinum Is Substituted For Gold. The Earliest Form Of Bath Consisted Of 1 Gr. Of Platinic Chloride In 15 Oz. Of Water, And It Was Not Until ...

Portrait Lenses
Portrait Lenses Almost Any Lens Working At An Aperture Of F/6 Or Larger Is Suitable For Portraiture Provided That Its Focal Length Is Not Less Than Times That Of The Longest Side Of The Largest Plate Which It Will Have To Cover. The Name Is, However, By Common Consent Confined ...

Portraiture
Portraiture In All Portraiture, The Question Of Appar Atus Is Not Nearly So Important As Those Of Posing And Lighting. The Camera Should Pre Ferably Be Of The Stand Variety, But Hand Cameras Are Also Capable Of Producing Good Work ; The Ordinary Fixed-focus Pattern Without Magnifiers Is Not To ...

Portraiture By Gaslight
Gaslight, Portraiture By The Use Of Gaslight Is Possible For Portraiture. With Ordinary Gaslight (without Mantles), Ex Posures Are Long Even Under The Most Favour Able Conditions, The Light Being Poor In Violet Rays And Comparativelanon-actinic. Gaslight Has Advantages For Isochromatic Work, As Without A Yellow Screen It Gives Practically ...

Posing
Posing In Photography The Posing Of The Figure Has To Be Considered From A Different Standpoint From What Would Be Suitable In Painting, On Account Of The Exaggeration Of Perspective In Short-focus Lenses. Care Should Be Taken So To Pose A Figure That The Whole Arrangement Of Figure And Dress ...

Positive Emulsions
Positive Emulsions Positive Emulsions May Again Be Subdivided Into Chloride And Bromide Emulsions, The Former Including Chloro-bromide Also, And Such As Are Suitable For Gaslight Papers And Plates. Chloride Emulsion (eder) A. Sodium Chloride . Z88 Grs. 3o G. Or Ammonium Chloride 264 ,, Hard Gelatine . • 384 ,, ...

Positives Direct
Positives. Direct The Simplest Method Of Obtaining A Direct Positive Upon A Dry Plate Is To Expose (avoiding Over-exposure) And Develop In The Usual Way, But Not Fix. After Washing, Immerse In Potassium Perman Ganate . . . 5 Grs. I G. Sulphuric Acid . 10 Mills. 2 Ccs. Water ...

Positives In Colours
Positives In Colours There Have Been Many Methods Of Obtaining Positives In Colours. E. J. Wall, In American Photography, Has Summarised Them As (i) The So-called Diazotype Processes (fully Described Under The Heading " Diazotype "), In Which The Action Of Light On Diazo Compounds Is Utilised By The Formation ...

Postage Stamp Photographs
Postage Stamp Photographs For Producing These Professionally, A Camera Containing A Battery Of Small Lenses May Be Used, Its Interior Being Partitioned Into As Many Sections As There Are Lenses, Thus Securing A Number Of Images On One Negative. The Illus Tration Shows A Camera For Taking Nine Photo Graphs ...

Postcards
Postcards The Popularity Of The Postcard (invented In 1869 By Dr. E. Hermann, Of Vienna) Has Increased Enormously Since About 1894, Owing To The Intro Duction Of Picture Postcards, The Authorising Of Private Postcards, And The Withdrawal Of The Regulation Confining The Written Matter To One Side Only. As To ...

Potassium Bichromate
Potassium Bichromate (pr., Bichromate De Potasse ; Ger., Kaliumbichromat, Saures Rotes Chromsaures Kalium) Synonyms, Potash Or Potassium Dichromate Acid Or Red Potassium Chromate. Molecular Weight, 294. Solubilities, I In 10 Water, Insoluble In Alcohol And Ether. Large Orange-red Translucent Crystals Obtained From Chrome Iron Ore. It Is Poisonous, The Antidotes ...

Powder Process
Powder Process This Is Better Known As The Pro Cess (which See). The Following, However, Was Introduced As A Powder Process, And Is Based On The Reduction Of The Persalts Of Iron Into Proto-salts By The Action Of Light. It Was Invented In 1858 By H. Gamier And A. Salmon, ...

Precautions Against Damp
Damp, Precautions Against Damp Plays Havoc With Apparatus And Sen Sitive Material, Which Should Always Be Stored In A Dry, Airy Place. Camera Bellows Become Mouldy In A Damp Place, Lenses Spotty, Cameras May Come To Pieces, And Dark-slides Refuse To Fit Or Draw Out, And Shutters To Work. Preventives ...

Press Photography
Press Photography Photography With The Object Of Obtaining Illus Trations For Use In Newspapers, Magazines, Books, Etc. All Important Papers That Make A Special Ity Of Printing Photographs Of Current Events Have A Permanent Staff Of Photographers, Are In Touch With Agencies Which Also Have A Similar Staff, And Have ...

Printing Frames
Printing Frames (pr., Chassis Positif, Chassis De Tirage, Chassis Presse ; Ger., Kopierrahmen) Appliances For Keeping The Negative And Sen Sitised Paper In Close Contact During Exposure To Light In Printing. The Ordinary Pattern, A, Is Made Of Teak Or Other Hard Wood, And The Divided Hinged Back, The Inner ...

Printing From Ferns And
Ferns And Leaves, Printing From Ferns And Leaves Make Effective And Decora Tive Photographs Which Are Easily Produced Without A Camera, Lens, Or Negative, The Leaves Being Printed Direct Upon The Sensitive Paper. Lace May Also Be Photographed In The Same Way. Either Fresh, Preserved, Or Skeletonised Flowers And Leaves ...

Or Air Brush Aerograph
Aerograph, Or Air Brush (fr., Aerographe ; Ger., Aerograph) A Mechanical Sprayer Working By Means Of Compressed Air, And Used For Finishing And Work Ing Up Both Prints And Negatives ; Invented By Charles L. Burdick, Of Chicago, In 1892, And Introduced Into England A Year Later. It Is Capable ...

Or Diamidophenol Amidol
Amidol, Or Diamidophenol (fr. And Ger., Amidol) A Developer Having The Formula Oh(nh2)2 ,and Introduced In The Year 1892. It Is Sold In The Form Of A White Or Greyish Crystal Line Powder, Which Keeps Well In A Dry State But In Solution Rapidly Loses Its Developing Powers. The Dry ...

Or Glycin Glycine
Glycine, Or Glycin (fr., Glycine ; Ger., Glycin) A Developer, Known Also As Paraoxyphenylgly Cin, Having The Formula Oh Cooh. It Appears In The Form Of Glistening Grey Powder, Which, When Carelessly Kept, Turns To A Brownish Black And Loses Its Developing Powers. The Powder Is Insoluble In Plain Water, ...

Or Photo Geny Photogenic
Photogenic Drawing, Or Photo Geny The Name Given By Fox Talbot In 1835 To The Results Of His Early Experiments, Which Consisted In Coating Paper Or White Leather With A Silver Nitrate Solution And Obtaining Thereon, By The Action Of Light, Images Of Leaves, Etc. Talbot Communicated His Experiments And ...

Or Radio Graphy Photography
Photography, Or Radio Graphy (fr., Radiographic ; Ger., Rontgenphotographie) There Being No Method Of Bringing X-rays To A Focus, The Images Produced On The Photo Graphic Emulsion Are Merely Shadows Of The Objects. The Illustration Shows The Outfit For Radiography, A Being A Metal-lined Box Con Taining The X-ray Tube ...

Or Stopping Out Blocking
Blocking Out, Or Stopping Out A Method Of Painting Out Undesirable Details Upon A Negative, The Painted Portions Appearing White Upon The Finished Print ; Parts Of Lantern Slides May Also Be Blocked Out, In Which Case The Blocking Out Appears Black Upon The Screen. Blocking Out Is Extensively Used ...

Or Talbotype Calotype
Calotype, Or Talbotype, Process A Negative Process Upon Paper, Invented By Pox Talbot And Patented By Him On September 20, 184r. It Was The Third British Patent For Photography, The Two Previous Ones Being For The Daguerreotype Process. The Patent Was Afterwards Disputed By The Rev. J. B. Reade, But ...

Or Wet Plate Process
Collodion Process (wet), Or Wet Plate Process (fr., Procede D In Col Lodion Humide, Collodion Mouill ; Ger., Kollodiumverfahren, Nasses Hollodiotwer Fahren) Collodion Was Introduced Into England In 1847 ; Immediately Afterwards R. J. Bingham (one Of Faraday's Assistants) Suggested Its Use For Photography. Gustave Le Gray, A Noted French ...

Or Wheel Oflife
Zoetrope, Or " Wheel Of Life " An Open Cylinder With Vertical Slits Round Its Sides, And Below Them A Series Of Motion Pictures Which Were Viewed Through The Slits As The Cylinder Revolved On Its Stand, The Result Being A Kinematograph Effect. It Embodies In Cylindrical Form The Principle ...