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Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine

Pinguecula
Pinguecula Is A Small, Yellowish Ele Vation In The Bulbar Conjunctiva Near The Corneal Limbus And Usually Situated To The Inner Side. It Is Composed Of Con Nective Tissue And Elastic Fibres, In Asso Ciation With A Colloid Substance; It Is Due To The Action Of External Irritants. It Has ...

Piperazin
Piperazin. — Piperazin (pyrazin Hexahydride, Dispermin, Di-ethylene-di Amin; Piperazidin; Ethylene-imin) Is Ob Tained By The Action Of Ammonia Upon Ethylene Bromide Or Chloride. It Oc Curs In Colorless, Transparent, Deliques Cent Needles, Which Absorb Carbonic Acid From The Air. It Is Very Soluble In Water, The Solution Being Practically Tasteless ...

Plague Bubonic Plague
Plague (bubonic Plague). Definition.—a Virulent Infectious Dis Ease Due To A Specific Organism, Charac Terized By The Formation Of One Or More Buboes Or By The Development Of A Vio Lent Form Of Primary Confluent Pneu Monia. Varieties.—two Varieties Of This Dis Ease Are Usually Recognized: The Simple Bubonic, In ...

Plastic Surgery
Plastic Surgery. — Plastic Sur Gery Includes The Various Measures Re Quired To Correct Malformations Due To Defective Embryonal Development, Harelip, Cleft Palate, Branchial Fistula, And Kindred Conditions,—and Deformi Ties Occurring As The Result Of Cicatricial Contraction After Burns, Ulcers, Or Other Destructive Agencies And Disorders. Al Though Plastic Operations ...

Pleural Effusions
Pleural Effusions. — The Differ Ential Diagnosis Between Croupous Monia And Pleural Effusion Is Sometimes Difficult. This Is Particularly The Case In Those Instances Of Pleural Effusion In Which Bronchial Breathing And Bron Chophony Are Decided Physical Phenom Ena. The Onset Of Pleurisy, However, Is Not Characterized By Symptoms Of ...

Pneumonia
Pneumonia. Pneumonia, How Ever, Digitalis Is Often Distinctively Of The Utmost Value, Particularly In Main Taining The Heart's Action Where There Is Adynamia, And For The Promotion Of The Excretion Of Waste Through The Kidneys. Another Fact Not Generally Noted Is That Many Cases Of Pneumonia Result Fatally, Not From ...

Pneumonia With Central Lesions
Pneumonia With Central Lesions Shows Some Modification Of The Usual Symptomatology. While Subjective Symp Toms May Be Marked, It Will Be Readily Understood That The Physical Signs Are In Definite, So That The Diagnosis Depends Mainly Upon The Former Manifestations. Pain, However, Is Usually Absent, As In Volvement Of The ...

Pneumonokoniosis
Pneumonokoniosis. Definition And Varieties.—this Is A Term Applied To The Proliferative Stitial Inflammation Of Various Pulmo Nary Structures Caused By The Continued Inhalation Of Dusts Of Different Kinds. The Three Principal Forms Of Pneumono Koniosis Are Anthracosis, Or Coal-miners' Disease, Due To The Inhalation Of Coal Dust; Chalicosis, Or Stone-cutters' ...

Pneumothorax From Without
Pneumothorax From Without May Be Due To Traumatic Injury, As In Stab Wound, Fracture Of A Rib With Wounding Of The Visceral Pleura, Or In Severe Injuries Of The Chest Without Wound Or Fracture. It Is Important To Note That Pneumothorax Follows Only In A Small Number Of These Conditions; ...

Poisoning
Poisoning. — The Value Of Apomor Phine As An Antispasmodic Is Attested By Edward Balm, Of Hyderabad, Who Tried It In A Distressing Case Of Hiccough In A Man, 50 Years Old, Who Had Suffered From The Affection For About Six Months. It Is Thus Shown To Be Doubly Valuable ...

Polycoria
Polycoria, Multiple Pupils, May Be Caused By Division Of The Normal Pupil Into Two By A Band Of Persistent Pupillary Membrane, Or It May Be From Openings In Other Parts Of The Iris. Only The Cen Tral Or True Pupil Is Furnished With A Sphincter Muscle. Iritis; Cyclitis; Iridocyclitis. Plastic ...

Polypus
Polypus. See Nasal Cavities, External Ear, Uterus, Etc. Potassium.—potassium, Or Kalium, Is A White Metal, Discovered By Sir Hum Phry Davy In 1807, Having The Consist Ence Of Wax; The Fresh-cut Surface Has A Silvery Lustre, Rapidly Changing By Oxidation To Bluish Or Gray. Its Affinity For Oxygen Is Very ...

Post Operative Obstruction
Post-operative Obstruction. — Testinal Obstruction Following Operation Is Caused, According To Deaver, Either By Paresis, The Result Of Traumatism Or Sep Sis, Or A Combination Of These, Or To Me Chanical Causes. About 2 Per Cent. Of Deaths Following Abdominal Section Are Due To Mechanical Or True Intestinal Ob Struction. ...

Posterior
Posterior Tnonacoromy.—the Pur Pose Of This Operation Is The Removal Of Tumors From The Posterior Mediastinum, Or The Extraction Of Foreign Bodies Lodged In The Bronchi Or The Oesophagus Above The Ninth Rib. The Operation Has Been Performed Only A Few Times, Usually For Obstruction Of The Right Bronchus (opposite ...

Posterior Linear
Posterior Linear Have Never Attempted To Relieve A Patient Suffering From Malignant Trouble By Means Of This Operation. In Benign Structures I Have Found The Procedure A Most Excellent Plan Of Treatment When Combined With The Subsequent Use Of Bougies. Those Surgeons Who Adopt This Method For The Relief Of ...

Potassium
Potassium Chlorate.—in Large Doses Chlorate Of Potassium Exerts A Paralyzing Effect Upon The Spinal Cord, But Has A More Profound Action Upon ,the Blood, Disintegrating The Corpuscles And Making It Of A Chocolate Color. In Poisonous Doses Vomiting With Hmmatemesis, Delir Ium, Limmatogenous Jaundice, And Coma Result. The Bodily Temperature ...

Potassium Sulphate And Tar
Potassium Sulphate And Tar Trates.—these Salts In Large Doses Act As Irritant Poisons, Producing Severe Ab Dominal Pain, Vomiting, Etc. The Treat Ment Of Poisoning By These Salts Consists In The Evacuation Of The Stomach And The Administration Of Warm Demulcent Drinks And Opium. Cardiac Stimulants May Be Needed, And ...

Preparation Of The Daily
Preparation Of The Daily Supply. —the Full Quantity Of Food For Twenty Four Hours Should Be Made At One Time; Then Clean Bottles For The Required Num Ber Of Feedings Are Filled, Stoppered With On-abe,orbent Cotton, And Sterilized, Pasteurized, Or, If The Food Is To Be Used Raw, Placed Immediately ...

Primary Hemorrhage
Primary H.:emorrhage. — A Slight Haemorrhage Of Any Kind Is Usually Re Covered From Promptly Unless The Pa Tient's General Health Is Impaired. The Almost Universal Practice Of Bleeding As A Therapeutic Measure During The Early Part Of This Century Showed How Even Copious Bleeding Could Be Benign In Im ...

Prognosis
Prognosis. —all Cases Tend To Rapid Recovery, Although A Number Of Relapses May Occur. Deaths Have Been Recorded, But When The Large Number Of Cases Is Taken Into Consideration This Loss Of Life Is Very Small. —internal Treatment Is To Be Directed Toward The Removal Of The Exciting Cause Where ...

Prognosis A
Prognosis.-a State Of Patency Of The Cervical Canal Can Usually Be Ob Tained, But It Is Often Difficult To Main Tain It In The Virgin And The Old Woman Without Occasional Dilatation. The Sterility Can Usually Be Relieved In Quite Young People; But, After The Condition Has Lasted Long Enough ...

Prognosis And Treatment
Prognosis And Treatment. — In Thrombosis The Recovery Of Vision Is Very Improbable. In A Few Cases Of Embolism Some Vision Is Recovered. Either Spon Taneously Or Under Treatment The Em Bolus May Be Broken Up And Pass On Ward Into Some Branch Of The Artery, And Even Into Such ...

Prognosis_2
Prognosis. — This Is Unfavorable. The Duration Of The Disease Is For Life. Dementia Does Not Occur Except In Ad Vanced Stages. The Exhaustion Of The Maniacal Stage May Shorten Life. Treatment.—the Treatment Is Un Satisfactory. Chloral Fails To Quiet The Exaltation And Restlessness In The Mani Acal Stage Unless ...

Prognosis_3
Prognosis. — With Proper Care And Treatment, The Vitality Of A Part Actually Frozen May Be Restored; Unskillful Treat Ment May Favor Gangrene Even When The Parts Are Not In A State Of Congela Tion. -the Indications Are To Restore Gradually The Heat-producing Powers Of The Part And At The ...

Prognosis_4
Prognosis. — The Prognosis Is Favor Able If The Proper Treatment Is Promptly Applied. When Left Alone The Pigmented Masses Are Prone To Epitheliomatous De Generation, And May Become Foci For Carcinoma Of The Face, In Which Case The Dry Scales Are Displaced By A Scab, The Tis Sues Become ...

Prognosis_5
Prognosis. — The Prognosis Depends Upon The Origin Of The Phlegmasia And Upon The Nature Of The Complications. The Danger Of Death From Sudden Ob Struction Of The Pulmonary Artery Is Al Ways Present Until The Thrombus Has Dis Appeared Or Become Thoroughly Organ Ized. Embolism Has Proved Suddenly Fatal ...

Prolapse Of The Upper
Prolapse Of The Upper Portion Of The Rectum Into The Lower.—this Disorder Is Called "invagination" Or "in Tussusception" In Other Portions Of The Intestinal Tract. It Is Described By J. M. Mathews As One "where The Finger Can Be Inserted Into A Groove Alongside Of The Base Of A Tumor ...

Prolongation Of Local Action
Prolongation Of Local Action Of Cocaine For Surgical Purpose.—by Arresting The Arterial And Venous Circu Lation, Corning Has Demonstrated That When Cocaine Is Injected Into An Ex Tremity Its Action Inay Be Prolonged For Ninety Minutes, If Necessary. This Arrest He Accomplishes By The Aid Of Appropriate Ligature About The ...

Prostatectomy
Prostatectomy Must Always Be Re Garded As A Formidable Operation. There Are Rare Cases In Which A Pedunculated ,growth Of The Middle Lobe Or A More Or Less Circumscribed Enlargement Of One Portion Of The Prostate May Be Easily And Safely Removed Through A Suprapubic Opening. The Removal Of The ...

Proteids
Proteids. — The Proteids Show The Greatest Differences, Both In Quantity And In Character. A Good Average Breast Milk Contains Nearly 1.5 Per Cent. Of Pro Teids, Of Which About One-third Is Casein, And The Other Two-thirds The Soluble And Easily Digestible Lactalbumin. Cows' Milk Contains Nearly 4.0 Per Cent. ...

Pseudoaoromegalio Syringomyelia
Pseudoaoromegalio Syringomyelia. —affects Usually The Lower Limbs Only,— One Only Sometimes, And May Not Affect All The Fingers. Deformities And Trophic Changes Are Present. Seoliosis And Dis Sociation Of Sensibility Are Notable Feat Ores. Case Of Hereditary Syphilis Presenting Great Length Of Diaphysis Of Long Bones, Wrist, And Elbow. Nobl ...

Pseudoleukzemia Hodgkins Disease
Pseudoleukzemia (hodgkin's Disease). Definition.—this Obscure Disease May Be Defined As An Hypertrophy Of The Lymphatic Tissues, Accompanied By An Anemia, But Without Leucocytosis. It Resembles In Many Respects The Granulo Mata, Neoplasmic Proliferation, And True Leukeemia. In The Glands Of Many Un Doubted Cases Of Hodgkin's Disease Tubercle Bacilli Have ...

Psoriasis
Psoriasis As Commonly Met With Is Not Difficult To Differentiate. The Numer Ous, Variously-sized, Sharply-defined Scaly Patches, Of General Distribution, Of Psori Asis Make This Disease Sufficiently Char Acteristic. The Face And Hands Are Rarely Involved, Or Only To A Slight Extent, At Least, In Psoriasis, While These Regions Are ...

Psoriasis_2
Psoriasis. Definition.—psoriasis Is A Cutaneous Disease Characterized By The Presence Of Silvery-white Perfectly-dry Scales, Which Overlie A Reddish, Shining Base. Symptoms.—the Eruption Of Psoriasis Is Always Dry And Scaly. It Begins In One Or More Red Points, Which Quickly Be Come Covered With White, Silvery Scales. These May Be Readily ...

Psychica
Psychica L Symptoms.—these Vary With The Individual Temperament Of The Patient, And Are Always Present To A Greater Or Less Degree In Every Hysterical Subject. Such A Person Seems Defective In Will-power, Although Sachs Observes That The Will Is More Misdirected Than Weakened. The Impulses Of Inclination Are Followed Regardless ...

Psychical
Psychical Symptoms.—the Defect Ive Intelligence Is The Most Marked Char Acteristic Of The Idiot. There May Be Shrewdness, Or Rather Cunning, A Reten Tive Memory, Acuteness Of The Special Senses, And Even The Mathematical Faculty May Be Highly Developed In Cer Tain Directions, But Judgment And Self Control Are Lacking. ...

Puerile Cervix
Puerile Cervix. — The Corpus Is About Normal In Size, But The Cervix Is Small And Conical, With An Extremely Small External Os. Anteflexion And Ste Nosis May Be Present. The Symptoms And Diagnosis Are The Same As For Deformities, Resulting From Imperfect Union Of Mueller's Duct, And May Be ...

Pulmonary
Pulmonary Disorders.—inhalations Of Menthol Have Been Used With Advan Tage In Asthma. Being Readily Volatilized By The Addition Of Hot Water, The Re Sultant Vapor May Be Inhaled. A Few Drops Of A 20-per-cent. Solution Of Menthol In Olive-oil By Inhalations Ad Ministered To A Woman With Asthma And Congestion ...

Pulmonary
Pulmonary Diseases.—it Is Ill Dis Eases Of The Respiratory Tract That The Remedy Has Gained Greatest Repute In Late Years. Inasmuch As It Is Eliminated By The Bronchial Mucous Membrane, Which It Stimulates, It Is An Expectorant Of Great Value, Especially So If There Be Any Fwtor Of The Secretion. ...

Pulmonary Apoplexy
Pulmonary Apoplexy. — This Con Sists In Extravasation Of Blood Into The Air-cells And Interstitial Pulmonary Tissue, As A Result Of Aneurismal Rupture, Pene Trating Wounds, Ulceration Involving A Large Vessel, Septico-pymmia, Cerebral Disease, And Other Conditions In Which The Pulmonary Parenchyma Is Torn. As Here Understood, Pulmonary Apo Plexy ...

Pulmonary Disorders
Pulmonary Disorders. — In Pulmo Nary Disorders, G. Mayer Found Amylene Hydrate A Reliable And Pleasant Hypnotic. It Appeared Not Only To Produce Sleep, But To Have A Decided Sedative Influence On The Cough. In Phthisis It Proved It Self Useful In This Respect, After Morphia Had Had But Little ...

Pulmonary Emphysema
Pulmonary Emphysema. Definition.—pulmonary Emphysema Is Characterized By The Presence Of An Ex Cess Of Air In The Alveoli And Infundibu Lar Passages, With Atrophy Of The Alveolar Walls, Or By The Adventitious Presence Of Air In The Interstitial Alveolar Tissue. Varieties. — Emphysema Is Divided Into Two General Varieties: The ...

Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy
Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy. In This Disease There Is Hypertrophy With Deformities, But Of The Osseous System Only; No Amenorrhcea Nor Enlargement Of Lower Jaw. The Third Phalanx Of The Fingers Is Much Enlarged, Like A Drum Stick, The Nails Are Lengthened, Widened, Striated Longitudinally, Curved Over The Finger-tip. The Carpus And ...

Pulsating Exoputiialmos
Pulsating Exoputiialmos, Attended With A Distinct Bruit Heard Over The Temple And Neighboring Parts And Audi Ble To The Patient, Is Most Frequently Caused By A Rupture Of The Carotid Artery Into The Cavernous Sinus. This May Occur Spontaneously Or From Crushing Injuries To The Head. Pulsating Exoph Thalmos Has ...

Pulsating Pleurisy
Pulsating Pleurisy Is A Rare Phe Nomenon. Sixty-eight Cases Have Been Collected, Mostly On The Left Side, And Only One Was Sero-fibrinous, The Rest Being Purulent. The Impulse May Be Heaving And Limited To The Sternal Region, Or Dif Fused And Most Marked In The Axillary And Scapular Regions. In ...

Puma
Puma. See Wounds (;_','errre) And Gangrene. Pyridin.—pyridin Is A Basic Sub Stance Obtained By Dry Distillation Of Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen (bone-oil, Coal-tar, Naphtha, Etc.). It Oc Curs As A Colorless, Limpid, Hygroscopical Liquid, Having An Empyreumatic Odor And A Sharp Taste, And Freely Miscible With Water, Alcohol, Ether, Chloroform, ...