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A Connective Tissue Tumors
A. Connective Tissue Tumors 1. 1-1(rm It Yio »? A I-ilmnangiomata Are The Most Frequent Forms Of Tumors Found In Children. They Are Made Up Of Blood-vessels In Irregular Construction, And They Arise And Grow By New-formation And Exuberance Of The Vessels. Etiology And Pathologic Divides These Into Hem Angioma ...

A Spastic Family Affections
A. Spastic Family Affections' 1. Spinal Symptom-complexes Family Spastic Paralysis Of The Spinal Type ("hereditary Form Of Spastic Spinal Paralysis," Erb) Is A Distinctly Hereditary Disease Which Does Not Always Begin In Childhood, Its First Appearance Being Sometimes Delayed Until A More Mature Age. Males Seem To Be More Frequently ...

Abdom1nal Pltr Pura
Abdom1nal Pltr Pura (henoch) In The Course Of A Rheumatic Purpura Abdominal Manifestations, Such As Vomiting, Intestinal Hmmorrhages And Colic May Appear Under Certain Circumstances. These Are Productive Of A Peculiar Ymptom Complex Which Llenoch Observed In Several Cases In Isgs And Described In 1874. Since Then A Number Of ...

Abdominal Hernia Inglinal Hernla
Inglinal Hernla, Abdominal Hernia, Diaphragmatic Hernia Nature And Etiology.—abdominal Herniae Belong In General To The Sphere Of Surgery. They Deserve, However, A Brief Consideration In A Work On Children's Diseases, Because The Characteristic Hernial Sacs Result Either From Congenital Conditions, Errors In The Fcetal Develop Ment Resulting In Separation Of ...

Absorption Digestion
(digestion, Absorption) As We Follow The Passage Of The Food Through The Intestinal Tract Of The Sick Child, We Must First Of All Consider What Abnormalities Occur In The Digestive Processes Under Pathological Conditions. The Aim Of Our Inve.stigations Must Primarily Be To Gain Definite Knowledge Of The Functional Activities ...

Acne Vulgars
Acne Vulgar's By Comedo We Designate A Core Which Is Formed In The Excretory Ducts Of The Sebaceous Glands From Cornified Epithelial Cells, Sebum And Bacteria. Should These Comcdones Become Ulcerative, Acne Pustules Develop, Which Lead To The Formation Of Smaller Or Larger, More Or Less Hypermnic Papules Around The ...

Acquired Affections Of The
Acquired Affections Of The Endocardium (a) Endocarditis In General Etiology And Occurrence.—in Its Etiology, Occurrence, Symp Tomatolow And Course, Endocarditis In Childhood Differs Considerably From Endocarditis In Adults. It Is Found As A Congenital Condition, With Or Without Arrested Cardiac Development, And Attacks Especially The Valvular Apparatus Of The Right ...

Acquired Asphyxia
Acquired Asphyxia This Is Also Called Atelectasis Pulmonum And Is Encountered In Premature And Debilitated Children. We Differentiate According To The Onset An Early And A Late Form Of Asphyxia. (concerning The Latter See Also The Chapter On Prematurity And Debility). The Etiology Of This Form Of Asphyxia Is Rather ...

Acquired Atelectasis
Acquired Atelectasis Etiology.--ude From The Congenital Form, Atelectasis Develops With Relative Frequency In Young Children, Since Tbe Underlying Causes Are Frequently Found Grouped Together, Viz., General Debility, Occlusion Of The Bronchi, And Insufficiency Of The Respiratory Muscular Apparatus. In Every Case Of Bronchiolitis And Bronchopneumonia, Atelectatic Spots Of Varying Extent ...

Acquired Diseases Of The
Acquired Diseases Of The Blood Vessels 1. Aorta.—aortic Affections Are Exceptions, On Account Of The Rare Occurrence Of Arteriosclerosis, Although In Childhood Also Aortic Aneurysms And Inflammatory Changes Of The Vessel Have Been Described By Martin, De La Rue And Marfan. Hochsinger Has Seen Aortitis Twice In Children With Congenital ...

Acquired Syphilis Of Childhood
Acquired Syphilis Of Childhood There Is No Essential Difference Between The Acquired Syphilis Of The Child And That Of The Adult. Well Developed Cases Of Acquired Syphilis In Children Under Observation From The Beginning, Show A Primary Lesion At The Point Of Infection, Which Is Followed After The Proper Interval ...

Acute Articular Rheumatism
Acute Articular Rheumatism To These Are Added As Further Characteristics The Frequent Involvement Of The Serous Membranes, Especially Of The Endo- And Pericardium, As Well As The Specific Influence Of Salicylate Preparations On These Joint Ailments. Various Forms Of Poly Arthritis Were Formerly Included In The De Scription Of Acute ...

Acute Catarrhal Laryngitis
Acute Catarrhal Laryngitis Acute Catarrh Of The Larynx Is More Common In Children Than In Adults, Because The Laryngeal Mucous Membrane Is More Sensitive In Children, And Catarrhal Laryngitis Is Also A Symptom Of Certain Infec Tious Diseases. It Occurs More Frequently In Boys Than In Girls, And Particularly In ...

Acute Emphysenia Of The
Emphysenia Of The Lungs (chronic, Acute, And Interstitial) Form, Etiology And Pathogenesis.—we Must Distinguish Three Kinds Of Emphysema; Genuine Chronic, Acute (pulmonary Inflation), And Interstitial Emphysema. 1. The Chronic, Alveolar, Generalized Emphysema (rarefying Emphy Sema) Which Runs Its Course With Pertnanent Enlargement Of The Alveoli, Obliteration Of Alveolar Septa And ...

Acute Miliary Tuberculosis
Acute Miliary Tuberculosis Miliary Tuberculosis Resembles An Acute Infectious Disease, And Occurs At Every Stage Of Childhood. We Meet With It In Infants Present Ing The Same Picture As In Adult Life. Etiology And Pathogenesis.—milia•y Tuberculosis Is Almost Never Primary In Origin. It Follows Some Tuberculous Focus In The Body,—most ...

Acute Nondiphtheritic Affections
Acute Nondiphtheritic Affections In All Doubtful Cases The Indications Of Diphtheria Are: (1) The Con Temporaneous Development Of A Unilateral, Decided Coryza With A Sero Sanguinolent Discharge; (2) The Contemporaneous Development Of Laryn Gitis; (3) Great Swelling And Hardness Of The Adjacent Lymph-nodes; (4) The Appearance Of Typical Diphtheria In ...

Acute Peritonitis
Acute Peritonitis The Source Of Infection May Be The Gastrodntestinal Canal, The Liver And The Gall Bladder, The Kidney And The Bladder, And Also The Female Geni Talia. Inflammatory Processes In The Peritoneum May Proceed From The Retroperitoneal Lymph-nodes And The Lymph-nodes Of The Mesentery. In Infancy, Acute Peritonitis Is ...

Acute Rhinitis Coryza
Acute Rhinitis (coryza) Attacks Children More Frequently Than Adults And, With Especial Predilection, Nurslings. Mechanical, Chemical (io Dine), And Thermal Irritants Often Furnish The Cause. Mostly, However, A Coryza Is Infectious In Its Origin. Among The Multitude Of Pathogenic Germs (pneunio-, Strepto-, Staphylococci, Meningococcus Intracellularis), Which Are Present, It Is ...

Addisons Disease
Addison's Disease This Disease Has Been Brought By Its Discoverer Into Casual Relation With Changes In The Suprarenals. In Its Essential Parts His Original Description Is Probably Still Perfectly Valid. Neusser, To-day Probably The Best Authority On The Subject, Characterizes The Disease As Follows:— " There Is Idiopathic Anamiia, Accompanied ...

Affections Caused By Congenital
Affections Caused By Congenital Or Acquired Absence Of The Thyroid Or Its Function The Thyroid May Either Be Absent At Birth (thyreoplasia Congenita), Or May Have Been Removed By Surgical Operation, Or May Have Been Obliterated By Inflammatory, Atrophy (athyreosis Acquisita). Finally, There Is Athyreosis Aequisita In Goitre Regions In ...

Affections Occurring As
Affections Occurring As Sequel/e To Insufficiency Of Thyroid Function (dpthyreosis; Hypothyrensir) Jaunin, Marjan, Guinon, And Brissaud Have Communicated Observa Tions Of Stmple Myxecilema In Infants, Which Were Explained As Light, Incomplete Cases Of Athyreosis And Insufficient Glandular Function, Imme Diately Reacting To Organotherapy. They Were Equivalent To Those Frequent Occurrences ...

Affections As Sequele To
Affections As Sequele To Pathologically Exaggerated Thyroid Secretion Dasedow's Disease. (exoptithalmic Goitre; Graves's Disease) Basedow's Disease Is Rare In Infancy. According To Steiner There Occurs One Case In Infancy To Every Fifty Cases In Adults. Age And Sex Play A Predisposing Role In Its Etiology. In Childhood Most Cases Occur ...

Affections Of The Spleen
Affections Of The Spleen The Spleen Becomes Enlarged In Many Infectious Diseases, As In Typhoid, Paralysis Of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves, Malaria, Tuberculous Meningitis, Parotitis. Considerable Enlargements Occur In Leukaemia. Pseudoleukannia, And Brief Mention May Be Made Of Echinococcus Of The Spleen. Of Rather Frequent Occurrence Is Anomaly Of Position, Splenic ...

Affections Of The Thyroid
Affections Of The Thyroid Gland The Manifestations Of Disturbed Or Absent Secretion Of The Thyroid Will, As A Matter Of Course, Be Apparent In The Entire Organism In Propor Tion To Its State Of Development. Owing To The Smallness Of The Upper Thoracic Aperture And The Possibility Of Considerable Compression ...

Albumincria Of The Newborn
Albumincria Of The Newborn The Earliest Statements To The Effect That The Urine Of The Newborn Might Be Albuminous Were The Result Of Examinations Of The Bladder Content In Still-born Children, Or In Those Who Perished Shortly' After Delivery. But After Martin And Ruge Had Shown That Urine Originally Free ...

Albuminuria
Albuminuria The Almost Universally Accepted Dictum That Albumin In The Urine Was Always A Symptom Of Disease Of The Kidney, Was Not Refuted Until The Celebrated Investigations Of Von I.eube In The Year Ist7. Prior To This The Isolated Observations, Which Went To Show That Occasionally Albumin Might Be Found ...

Alopecia Areata
Alopecia Areata (area Ceisi-pdade) In This Affection, In Which Without Assignable Cause And Without Any Noticeable Change Of The Scalp, The Hair Falls Out, Circumscribed Roundish Foci Make Their Appearance. 'usually The Hair Falls Out First In A Small Annular Disk, At The Margin Of Which The Hair Breaks Off, ...

Anatomical And Physiological Peculiarities
Anatomical And Physiological Peculiarities Of The Infant Nasal Passages And The Nasopharyngeal Space Are Very Narrow In The Newborn And In Nurslings. The Nasal Cavity Is Shallow Corresponding To The Low Facial Part Of The Skull, So That Even In Slight Tumefactions Of The Nasal Mucous Membrane, The Entrance Of ...

Anatomy Diseases Of The
Diseases Of The Suprarenal Glands Evolution, Anatomy, And Physiology Our Knowledge Of The Evolution Of The Suprarenal Glands Is Still Deficient. Although The Opinion Prevails That The Cortical Substance Proceeds From The Pronephros, While The Medullary Substance Is Genet Ically Connected With The Sympathetic Nervous System, There Are Still Authors ...

Anatomy And Physiology Of
Anatomy And Physiology Of The Child's Larynx The Two Plates Of The Thyroid Cartilage Are Not United At Such A Sharp Angle As In The Adult, And Their Section Fornis An Almost Semicircular Arch. The Line Of Union In The Middle Can Hardly Be Felt. A Further Difference Is The ...

Anatomy And Physiology Of_2
Anatomy And Physiology Of The Circulatory Apparatus A. The Heart.—the Primary Cardiac Tube, Will Cil Lies Alone In The Cervical Region, Behind The Last Visceral Arch, Possesses Two Ends, A Pos Terior For The Reception Of Venous Blood, And An Anterior End Which Serves To Supply The Blood To The ...

And Membranous Rhinitis
And Membranous Rhinitis The Most Frequent Site For Primary Diphtheria, Next To The Pharynx, Is In The Nasal Cavities. The Fibrinous Exudate May Remain Limited To The Nose Or It May Spread Through The Posterior Nares To The Pharynx And Mouth, Or Passing Over The Pharynx It Leap To The ...

And Occlusions Of The
And Occlusions Of The Intestine (a) Hirschsphu Ng's Disease -congenital Dilatation Of The Colon This Very Interesting Condition, The Etiology Of Which Is Not Yet Entirely Clear, Was First Described In 1s80, By Hirschsprung, In Copen Hagen. He States, In His Last Publication On The Subject, That Ile Has Seen ...

Anemia Of School Children
An_emia Of School Children Various Unfavorable Influences Are At Work In The Development Of School Amemia. Vitiated Air May Cause A Bad Effect By Acting On The Nervous System And Thus Causing Disgust In Tender Children; Overheating Is Also A Factor, Especially If The Heat Is Supplied From A Central ...

Aniesthesia In Children
Aniesthesia In Children General Anaesthesia Is Necessary In Order To Perform Major And Delicate Minor Operations. It Is Often Necessary In The Case Of Children To Den-den Not Only Pain Hut Also Consciousness In Order To Secure The Quiet Repose Necessary For The Operation, Whereas The Same Operation In Adults ...

Animal Parasites
Animal Parasites A Few Years Ago, Wornis Played An Important R6le In The Pathology Of Childhood, Both With Physicians And The Laity. The Chief Reason For This Was The Deficient Know-ledge, Not Only Of Many Children's Diseases, But Also Of The Life Conditions Of These Parasites. The Thorough Study Of ...

Animal Parasites Sca Bies
Animal Parasites Sca Bies The Penetration Of The Scabies Mite (actin's Scabiei, Sarcoptes Hominis) 16 Revealed By The Formation Of Subcutaneous So-called Scabies Ducts, Being Fine Small Ducts 2 To 15 Mtn. In Length And Of Whitish Color. The Skin Is Either Of Normal Appearance Or Raised In The Shape ...

Anomalies In The Urinary
Anomalies In The Urinary Discharge These May Be Either Purely Functional, Or They May Be The Result Of Organic Disease. In This Place We Shall Speak Only Of The Latter Form. Anuria, Which Has Been Already Mentioned As A Symptom Of Ne Phritis, Also Occurs Congenitally. For Instance, In Deformities ...

Anomalies Of Formation And
Anomalies Of Formation And Position Fissure Of The Urethra And Clitoris Has Been Observed In Females Corresponding To Epispadias In The Male. Defective Opening Of The Urethra Has Been Observed In Various Locations, As For Instance In The Intestines, Or Into The Vagina. The Urethra May Be Partially Or Entirely ...

Anomalies Of Position Of
Anomalies Of Position Of Tile Testicles (retentio Teetis Or Eryptorchism. Ectopia Testis. Inversio Tostis) The Descent Of The Testicle, Illustrated In Fig. 1s. Should Be Com Pleted During The Eighth Fcetal Month. If They Are Arrested In Their Progress We Speak Of A Retentio Testis, Of Which There Are Two ...

Anomalies Of The Kidneys
Anomalies Of The Kidneys Anomalies Of The Kidneys Include Complete Absence Of One Or Both Kidneys, Disturbances In The Frontal Development, Or Else Deviations From The Normal Position Alsberg). Absence Of The Kidney, Is Generally Accompanied By Other Serious Deformities (zaufal). Hochsinger Has Described Congenital Absence Of The Whole Urinary ...

Anomalies Of The Prepuce
Anomalies' Of The Prepuce; Phimosis And Its Complications (balanitis, Balomposthitis, Paraphimosis) The Development Of The Prepuce And Of The Anterior Portion Of The Urethra Takes Place In The Third To The Fourth Month Of Embryonal Life. During This Time A Fold Which Lies At The Posterior Edge Of The Developing ...

Anomalies Of The Sebaceous
Anomalies Of The Sebaceous Glands Seborriicea By Seborrhcca Is Understood A Pathological Increase Of The Secretion Of The Sebaceous Glands. It Is Divided Into (1) Seborrhom Oleosa And (2) Seborrhcea Sicca Jurfuracea-pityroides, Pityriasis Capitis) Accord Ing To Whether The Secretion Of The Sebaceous Glands Is Oily Or Dry. Seborrivea Oleosa ...

Anomalies Of The Sweat
Anomalies Of The Sweat Secretion Hyperidrosis Excessive Sweat Secretion May Be Universal (hyperidrosis) Or Local (epidrosis). Quite A Number Of Children, Especially Nervous Ones, React To Every Irritation By Perspiration. On The Other Band Excessive Sweating May Also Be Caused By- Heat, The Sun, Clothing, Etc. Excessive Local Hyperidrosis Is ...

Anomalies Of The Tongue
Anomalies Of The Tongue And The Frenum It Is A Fact Well Known To The Physician, As Well As The Laity, That The Surface Of The Tongue At The Onset Told During The Course Of Various Diseases Becomes Covered By A Whitish Coat. The Coated Tongue Played A Very Prominent ...

Arterial
Arterial Hyper/emia The Arterial Hypenernia Of Congestion Is Caused By An Increased Blood Supply To The Arteries, Whether By Augmented Pressure Or Ished Resistance Of The Circulation. The Best Known Form Of This Irmia Is Erythema Pudoris, Produced Under The Influence Of Shame, Joy, Etc. It Occurs Chiefly In Children ...

Artificial Feeding Of Infants
Artificial Feeding Of Infants Artificial Feeding, In Distinction From Natural And Mixed Feeding. Means That An Infant Does Not Receive Any Mother's Milk During A Part Or All Of The Period In Which It Should He Nursed. The Artificial Feeding May Be Instituted Immediately After Birth, Or After An Infant ...

Asphyxia And Atelectasis
Asphyxia And Atelectasis Through The Diminished Ventilation Of The Blood, A Pathological Oxygen-deficit En Sues And An Overloading With Carbon Dioxide, A Condition Of Asphyxia, Which Seriously Threatens Life. If The Respiration Is Utterly Wanting One Speaks Of Apparent Death ("scheintod"). We Differentiate Two Forms Of Asphyxia: I. The Congenital ...

Athyreosis Acquisita
Athyreosis Acquisita This Affection Is Likewise Described In The Literature As, Infantile Myxmdenia, Sporadic Cretinism, Ete. Its Symptom Complex Comprises All Manifestations Of Absent Function Of The Thyroid, The Latter Or Its Secretion Being Completely Missing In The Congenital Form. We Have Seen From The Inflammatory Infections Of The Thyroid ...

Atrophic Alcofiolic Cirrhosis Laennecs
Atrophic Alcofiolic Cirrhosis (laennec's Cirrhosis) Most Of The Reported Cas.es Of This Disease Are From England Where The Poor Children In The Large Cities Are Given Brandy And Gin At An Early Age, But The Number Of Cases Reported From Other Countries (france, Germany, Italy, Switzerland) Is Daily Increasing. Hutinel ...

Bladder Concretions Stones Of
Concretions (stones) Of The Kidney, Bladder, And Urinary Passages (symptornatology, See Langstein, Vol. Iv.) These Stones Are Found Most Frequently In Children In The Southern Part Of Hungary And In Russia, Also (according To Personal Communi Cation To The Author) Very Frequently In India. Stones In The Bladder Occur Mostly ...

Bradycardia And Arrhythmia
Bradycardia And Arrhythmia Retardation Of The Heart Action In Childhood Is Almost Always Associated With Irregularity Of The Pulse. Only This Retardation Of The Pulse With Arrhythmia In Childhood Is Not Always So Marked, Because Of The Higher Pulse Rate. Therefore Periodic Arrhythmia (double Pulse) Which Is Always Caused By ...

Brain Abscess
Brain Abscess Brain Abscess Is A Not Uncommon Disease In Childhood. The Causes Are Head Injuries, Diseases Of The Ears, Nose Or Other Structures Of The Head, Suppuration In Distant Organs And General Sepsis. We Accordingly Distinguish Traumatic, Otogenic, Rhinogenic And Metas Tatic Abscesses. When No Cau.se Can Be Discovered, ...

And Chronic Acholuric Icterus
Splenomegaly Of Gaucher, And Chronic Acholuric Icterus With Or Without Enlarged Spleen In Addition To Morbus Banti There Have Been Quite Recently Two New Diseases Of The Blood Described, Which Are Perhaps Identical, As They Certainly Strongly Resemble Each Other As Well As Morbus Banti. I. Splenomegaly Is Characterized By ...