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Composition Of Urine And
Composition Of Urine And Feces After The First Year Of Life The Quantity Of Urine Voided By Children After Infancy Is, Because Of Numerous Observations, Known With Some Exactness. The Quantity Does Not Increase With Age And Weight Like The Food, As Camerer Sup Poses, But More Slowly; Particularly In ...

Compression Of The Spinal
Compression Of The Spinal Cord By Caries Of The Verterre (spondylitis) Spoildyritis Or Pott's Disease Is A Frequent Manifestation Of Tuber Culosis In Childhood And Occurs Chiefly In Children With Tuberculous Inheritance. It Is Often Accompanied By Tuberculosis Of The Bones, Glands, Joints Or Lungs; But Clinically, At Least, It ...

Concussion Of The Brain
Concussion Of The Brain (commotio Cerebri) Concussion Of The Brain Is Described By Si111011 As Follows: "the Condition Consists In A Contusion, A Displacement Of The Brain As A Whole Without Injury To The Brain Substance. It Results In Diminished Irritability Of All The Centres In The Cerebral Cortex And ...

Congen1ta
Congen1ta (akacea) (keratosis Diffusa Congenita) This Infantile Affection Was First Described In 1792 And Again Later Under A Variety Of Different Names. It Is Congenital And Consists Of An Enormous Deposit Of Sebum And Corneal Masses Upon The Skin Of The Newborn Infant. The Affection Is Comparatively Rare (riecke, 1901, ...

Congenital Absence Of Muscles
Congenital Absence Of Muscles It Is A Matter Of Surprise That The Reported Cases Of Congenital Absence Of Muscles Have To Deal Much Less With Children Than With Half Grown Or Adult Individuals. The Reason Probably Is That The Anomaly Does Not Cause Any Marked Symptoms And Therefore Does Not ...

Congenital Anomalies Of The
Congenital Anomalies Of The Umbilical Region (see Plate 7) 1. Amniotic Narel.—normally The Skin Of The Abdominal Wall Ex Tends For About 1 Cm. Over The Umbilical Cord, The Base Of Which It Cylin Drically Encircles. In Very Rare Cases The Skin Is Lacking Over The Lower Part Of The ...

Congenital Changea In The
Congenital Changea In The Atrioventricular Ostia These Anomalies Form A Very Small Portion Of The Congenital Heart Affections. The Venous Valvular Apparatus, Of The Right Side Of The Heart Especially, Is Affected Very Frequently, Whether In The Form Of Arrestetl Development Up To The Complete Absence Of Ostiurn And -valves, ...

Congenital Deformities Of The
Congenital Deformities Of The Genital Tract Epispadias Is A Fissure Of The Lowest Part Of The Bladder Or Of The Urethra, Caused By Premature Arrest Of The Advancing Growth Of The Abdominal Walls (kaufmann). According To Whether The Fissure Involves The Entire Urethra Or Only Parts Of It, We Distinguish ...

Congenital Deformities Of The
Congenital Deformities Of The Rectum (see Fisehl, Deformities In The Region Of Rectum And Anus, Vol. Iii.) Pathological Anatomy.—a Rather Frequent Arrest Of Development, Reaching Back Into A Very Early Period Of Embryonal Life, Consists In Dis Turbances Connected With The Physiological Structure Of The Rectum. From The Preceding Description ...

Congenital Deformities Of The_2
Congenital Deformities Of The Extremities According To Geoffroy Saint-hilaire The Following Classes Should Be Made Of Deformities Of The Four Extremities Having The Same Pathogenesis And Etiology: 1. Ectromelia, Where One Or More Of The Extremities Are Entirely Missing. 2. Hemimelia, Where Only The Proximal Part Of An Extremity Is ...

Congenital Deformity Of Knee Joint
Congenital Deformity Of Knee-joint And Leg Congenital Malformations Of The Knee Are Of Rare Occurrence. De Formities Of The Patella Arc Generally Found Combined With Other Abnor Malities. The Patella, Which Is In Reality Simply A Sesamoid Bone, Varies Greatly In Its Size And Shape And Is Dependent On The ...

Congenital Diseases Of The
Congenital Diseases Of The Yervoits System 1. Acephalia, Amyelia.—the Greatest Disturbance Of The Central Nervous System Consists In The Total Absence Of The Brain And Spinal Cord. The Vertebral Column Remains Open Posteriorly, The Base Of The Skull Is Imperfectly Developed, And There Is Complete Absence Of The Calvarium. In ...

Congenital Elevation Of The
Congenital Elevation Of The Scapula This Deformity Was First Described By Meburney And Sands And Was Communicated To The German Literature By Sprengel In 1891. The Scapula Is Displaced Upward And Apparently Turned Around A Sagittal Axis. The Deformity, Which Occurs Less Frequently On Both .sidea, Is Attributed To Secondary ...

Congenital Goitre
Congenital Goitre Congenital Goitre Calls For Special Dis Cussion. It Is Not Of Very Rare Occurrence, And Consists Of A Transient, Uniform Conges Tion Of The Entire Thyroid Gland, Often Enough, However, Of Congenital Hyperplasia With In Creased And Enlarged Follicles And Cyst Forma Tion. In 643 Goitre Eases In ...

Congenital Hydrocephalus
Congenital Hydrocephalus (for The Clinical Aspect, Fee Zappert, Vol. Iv.) Congenital Hydrocephalus Is Nearly Always Present In The Form Of Hydrocephalus Interims, A Cystic Distention Of The Ventricles Of The Brain, Which May Be So Extensive That The Medullary Substance Forms But A Thin Cortex For The Enormously Enlarged Cavities. ...

Congenital Malformations
Congenital Malformations The Oral Cavity, Or To Be More Exact, The Bones And Integument Hav Ing A Part In The Structures Of The Mouth, Are Frequently Thc Seat Of Congenital Malformations In The Form Of Abnormal Clefts. In Order To Understand The Origin Of These Fissures The Adjoining Illustrations Will ...

Congenital Stridor Stridor Congenitcs
Congenital Stridor (stridor Congenitcs) By The Terms, Congenital Stridor, Stridor Congenitus, Or Stridor Neonatorum, Is Meant A Rare Peculiarity Of Respiration Which May Occur Immediately Or Soon After Birth. Inspiration Is Attended By A Loud Or Cackling Noise Which In Increased Respiration May Also Remind One Of The Sound Emitted ...

Congenital Torticollis
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis Does Not Occupy A Uniform Position Among The Deformi Ties. The Larger Portion Are Undoubtedly Congenital, But There Are A Number Of Eases In Which It Is Only A Secondary Or Part Manifestation Of Other Affections. Nevertheless It May Be Discussed Here From A Uniform Point Of ...

Conjunctival Diphtheria
Conjunctival Diphtheria Conjunctival Diphtheria Is A Very Rare Disease, Usually Secondary To -a Nasopharyngeal Diphtheria Advancing Through The Lachrymal Canals. Occasionally It Is Primary And Then It Often Sets Up Secondarily A Diph Theria Of The Nose And Throat. Impetigo, Eczema And Cachexia Increase The Predisposition To It (malian). According ...

Constipation In Older Children
Constipation In Older Children It Has Been Shown, In The Discussion Of Hirschsprung's Disease, That In Early Childhood There Exists A Certain Anatomical Disposition To Constipation, Which Has Again Been Recently Studied By Saias. He Ac Counts For It By The Relative Length Of The Colon In Proportion To That ...

Convulsive Diseases
Convulsive Diseases The Fact That Children In General, And Particularly Those In The First Two Years Of Life, Are Much More Frequently Attacked By Convulsions Than Adults Long Ago Arrested The Attention Of Physicians And Gave Rise To Many Theories For Its Explanation. It Does Not Appear Necessary To Enumerate ...

Cord Hernia Hernia 01
Hernia 01' The Unibilic.11, Cord (hernia L'unicitli (see .allonlinal Fissures. .11,io Knilpfelmaeller, Vol. Ii.) In The Early Embryonal Period, Before Closure Of The Abdominal Wall, The Bowels Lie As It Were Outside The Abdominal Cavity, The Abdomen Closing Later Through The Two Sides Approaching Each Other. Simul Taneously The Relatively ...

Coxa Vara
Coxa Vara Etiology.—judging By Its Crane-like Shape, The Neck Of The Femur Is Destined To Bear The Main Weight Of The Body (j. Wolff). The Structure Is Correspondingly Strengthened To Pre Vent Depression. The Angle Formed F.. N. By The Femoral Neck Varies In Dif Ferent Races From 10s° To ...

Croupous Fibrinous Pneumonia
Croupous (fibrinous) Pneumonia Croupous Pneumonia Constitutes A Typical Cyclic Disease, Well Known To Every Layman By The Term "inflammation Of The Lungs." On Account Of The Regular Participation Of The Pleura It Is Also Called Pleura Pneumonia, And On Account Of The Nature Of Its Appearance Primary, Genuine Pneumonia. Less ...

Cystitis And Pyelitis Bacteriltrta
Bacteriltrta, Cystitis And Pyelitis To Escherich Is Due The Great Merit Of Having Pointed Out In Iso4 The Frequent Occurrence Of Cystitis In Children, Especially In Girls. The Bacterium Coil Is A Frequent Cause Of Vesicle Catarrh In Adults, But Still More So In Childhood. Liseherieh Observed In His Clinic, ...

D Injuries To The
D. Injuries To The Skeleton Of The Child (fractures) These Are Usually Caused By Tumbles And Falls. The External Force, Either The Weight Of The Tinny In Hitting Or A Force Acting From Outside (uterine Nuiscles, Obstetrical Operations, Muscular Strength Of Others At Play), Will Meet Many Conditions In The ...

Defects Of Formation Development
Development Of The Genito-urinary System, Defects Of Formation, Hermaphroditism Fact That Organs Of Such Different Physiological Importance F49 Are Represented By The Suprarenal Glands, The Urinary Apparatus, And The Sexual Organs, Form One Evolutionary Unity Is Shown, Not Only By Their Pathology, But By Their Topographical Relations. It Seems Necessary, ...

Deformities Of The Thorax
Deformities Of The Thorax The Chicken- Or Keel-shaped Chest (pectus Carinatum) Is A Not Infre Quent Result Of Rachitis. A Superficial Examination Gives An Impression As If The Thorax Were Pressen Together With The Hands From Opposite Sides. The Transverse Thoracic Diameter Is, Therefore, Diminished, While The Sterno-vertebral Diameter Is ...

Dermatitis Exfoliativa
Dermatitis Exfoliativa (ritter) In 1870 Ritter Von Rittershayn First Described This Affection Which Had Been First Observed In The Foundlings Home In Prague. It Is Not Yet Established As A Pathological Picture, And Although It Probably Belongs To Pcmphigus Neonatorum, It Has Still To Be Described Separately (plate 97). Clinical ...

Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Dermatitis Herpetiformis (duhri.g) Hydroa Pruriginosa (tilbury Fox), Dermatite Polymorphe Pruri Gineuse Chronique Poussks Successives Jlallopeau), Dermatite Polymorphe Douloureuse (broeq). Under The Name Of Dermatitis Herpetiformis, Duhring In Philadelphia Has Described Au Affection Which Occurs Comparatively Infrequently In Children. It Is Distinguished By Its Many Varieties Of Form But The Herpetic ...

Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes Insipidus The Concentration Of The Urine Is Relatively Less Than The Quantity; The Specific Gravity Often Registers 1.005 And Lower And The Color Is Abnormally Light. The Great Loss Of Water Through The Kidneys Increases The Thirst (polydipsia.) And Diminishes The Excre Tion Of Water By The Skin, Which ...

Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus This Belief Is Not Entirely Correct As A Great Number Of Cases Of Diabetes In Childhood Have Been Reported In The Last Ten Years, Due Not To Its Increased Frequency But To Its Better Recognition. Most Statistics Show That From .5 To 1 Per Cent. Of All Cases ...

Diagnosis For Hemorrhagic Affections
Diagnosis For Hemorrhagic Affections The Recognition Of Fairly Pronounced Cases Is Easy. The Strict Diagnostic Separation Of The Various Forms Of Purpura Is Without Practi Cal Importance; In Case Of Need A Review Of The Points Mentioned On Page 172 In Regard To The Uniformity Of The Various Forms Of ...

Diagnosis Of Hereditary Syphilis
Diagnosis Of Hereditary Syphilis We Have Learned To Recognize The Great Diagnostic Value Of The Rontgen Ray Examination Of The Long Bones In Fcetal Syphilis, Since Wegner's Osteochondritis Can Easily Be Recognized, Provided The Foetus Belongs To The Second Half Of Pregnancy. Wassermann Described A Biologic Test For The Diagnosis ...

Diarrhcea In Older Children
Diarrhcea In Older Children The Increased Resistance Of The Digestive Organs In Children, In Their Second Year, Is Shown By The Fact That Disturbances Of Nutrition Are Localized In The Intestine And Produce Symptoms Which Indicate That A Definite Portion Of The Alimentary Tract Is Particularly Or Exclusively Involved. The ...

Differential Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis The Recognition Of A Typical Case Of Scarlet Fever Is By No Means Difficult. The Acute Onset Of The Initial Symptoms, The Early Marked Involvement Of The Gastro-intestinal Tract, The Prominence Of The Pharyn Geal Symptoms, The Macular Character Of The Exanthem, The Slight Increase In Size Of ...

Diphtheria
Diphtheria Is The Term Applied Since The Time Of Bre Tonneau And Trousseau To A Disease Of The Mucous Membranes Or Skin, Occurring Epidemically And Spreading By Contagion, And Characterized By The Formation Of A Membranous Deposit With General Symptoms Of Specific Toxlemia. Physicians Had Long Been Acquainted With The ...

Diphtheria Gravissma Malignant Pharyngeal
Malignant Pharyngeal Diphtheria, Diphtheria Gravissma The Underlying Cause Of This Most Severe Form Of Diphtheria, Is Either An Extraordinary Virulence Of The Bacilli (with The Combined Action Of Allied Streptococci Or Putrefactive Bacteria) Or A High Degree Of Individual Susceptibility. It Rarely Appears In Children Under Four Years Of Age, ...

Diphtheria Of The Skin
Diphtheria Of The Skin And Of Wounds In Diphtheria Of The Nose, Conjunctiva, Or Ear It Sometimes Happens That The Irritating Discharge Excoriates The Neighboring Skin With The Formation Of True Diphtheritic Membrane. This Is Also Found Exception Ally On The Sides Of A Tracheotomy Wound. In A Similar Way ...

Diphtheritic Heart Failure
Diphtheritic Heart Failure The Fatalities In Diphtheria Are Always More Or Less Dependent. On Toxic Changes In The Heart, Some Cases Being Pure Instances Of Heart Failure, Such An Event Occurring Either In The A-cute Stage Or In Conva Lescence, Suddenly And Unexpectedly, Or Slowly With Typical Signs. The Ultimate ...