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Economic Geography

Afghanistan
Afghanistan The Eastern Part Of The Iranian Plateau Belongs To Afghanistan Which Has An Area Of About 246,000 Square Miles. The Hindu Kush And Its Outliers Form The Northern Boundary Of The Plateau, And Run Across The Country Separating The Basins Of The Oxus And The Hari Rud From Those ...

Africa
Africa, Which Has An Estimated Area Of 11,500,000 Square Miles, Is Remarkable Alike For The Regularity Of Its Coast Line And The Comparative Simplicity Of Its Topographical Features. Its General Appearance Is That Of A Plateau, The Walls Of Which Rise In Some Places Steeply From The Sea, And In ...

Agriculture
Agriculture Is The Chief Industry Of The Country, And Gives Direct Employment To Rather More Than One-half Of Its Inhabitants. Over 80 Per Cent. Of The Land Is Productive, And Of That The Greater Part Is Divided Into Small Farms Which Are Worked By Their Owners. Holdings, Varying In Extent ...

Alaska
Alaska Has An Area One-fifth That Of The United States, And Is The Largest Of Its Outlying Possessions. Four Great Physical Regions May Be Recognised : The Pacific Mountains, Which Consist Of A Number Of Ranges Running, As A General Rule, More Or Less Parallel To The Coast, The Central ...

Anatolia
Anatolia Plateau Of Anatolia, Which Is Buttressed On The North And On The South By The Pontic And Taurus Ranges Respectively, Extends From The /egean Eastwards To The Armenian Knot. To The West Of The Anti-taurus The Plateau Forms A Great Central Plain, Of Which The Elevation Is Between 2,500 ...

Aquitaine
Aquitaine Is The Lowland Region Surrounded By The Central Massif, The Armorican Massif, And The Pyrenees. It Is Composed Partly Of Secondary And Partly Of Later Formations, But The Character Of The Soil Is Very Variable. In The Sub-pyrenean Districts, Covered To A Large Extent With Glacial Debris, In The ...

Ashanti The Gold Coast
The Gold Coast, Ashanti, And The Northern Territories. The Gold Coast, Ashanti, And The Northern Territories Have A Total Area Of About 80,000 Square Miles, And A Population Which Is Probably Between 1,500,000 And 2,000,000. Except In The North, Where It Belongs To The Upper Guinea Plateau, The Country Is ...

Asia
Asia -the Continent Of Asia, Which Has An Area Generally Estimated At About 17,250,000 Square Miles, Occupies Nearly One-third Of The Land Surface Of The Globe. The Most Pro Minent Feature In The Physical Structure Of This Vast Area Is The Great System Of Mountains And Plateaus Which Extends Across ...

Australia
Australia Commonwealth Of Australia, Which Includes Tasmania, Has An Area Of 2,974,581 Square Miles, And Is Just Over Three-fourths The Size Of Europe. In Its General Form The Island Continent Consists Of A Plateau, With An Average Elevation Of About 1,000 Feet, But A Number Of Distinct Physical Regions May ...

Belgium
Belgium, With An Area Of 11,373 Square Miles, Is One Of The Smallest Countries In Europe. In 1910 It Had A Population Of Over 7,500,000. The South-eastern Region, Which Varies In Height From 500 To Over 2,000 Feet, Belongs To The Plateau Of The Ardennes, And Consists In The Main ...

Bohemia
Bohemia Consists In The Main Of An Ancient Block Of Archaean Age, Though Silurian Rocks Cover A Wide Extent Of Country Between Pilsen And Prague. To The West And North Of These Silurian Rocks Is A Dis Trict In Which The Coal Measures Were Deposited In A Great Inland Lake, ...

British
British Columbia.—this Section Of The Western Cordillera, Although Considered As One Natural Region, Really Consists Of A Large Number Of Such Regions, Each Of Which Conforms To One Or Other Of A Few Distinct Types. It Extends From The Rocky Moun Tains In The East To The Coastal Ranges On ...

British East Africa
British East Africa The Physical Features Of British East Africa Present Some Striking Contrasts. Along The Coast There Is A Plain Which, At Mombasa In The South, Has A Width Of Only Two Miles, But Broadens Out, In The Neighbourhood Of The Juba River In The North, To Over A ...

Bulgaria
Bulgaria Bulgaria Has An Area Of 33,600 Square Miles, And A Population Estimated, In 1910, At 4,337,000. The Balkan Range Divides The Country Into Two Parts. To The North Of It Lies The Bulgarian Plateau, Which Is Built Up Of Secondary Material—sandstones And Limestones Overlaid In Places By Loess—and Is ...

Caoutchouc Or Rubber
Caoutchouc Or Rubber Is The Coagulated Latex Or Sap Of Various Trees And Other Plants Which Grow Mainly Within The Tropical Forests. The Most Important Of These Belong To The Genus Hevea, One Species Of Which, Hevea Brasiliensis, Grows Extensively In The Amazonian Lowlands. This Tree, Which Reaches A Height ...

Central
Central Chile.—the Third Region Of Chile, That Part Of The Great Valley With A Mediterranean Type Of Climate, Is The Most Important From An Agricultural Point Of View. On The Coastal Range And On The Slopes Of The Andes, There Is Much Good Grazing Ground, While The Chief Products Of ...

Central Belgium And
Central Belgium And Flanders.—for The Sake Of Convenience The Tertiary And Quaternary Soils Of Central Belgium And Flanders May Be Considered Together, Although From The Agricultural, If Not From The Industrial, Point Of View Several Distinct Regions May Be Recognised. The Loam Lands Of Central Belgium Constitute The Most Fertile ...

Ceylon
Ceylon Ceylon Has An Area Of 25,000 Square Miles. Plains Extend Across The North Of The Island And Along The Coast, But The Centre And South Are Occupied By A Great Mountainous Plateau Which Rises In Adam's Peak In The South-west To A Height Of Over 7,000 Feet. The Climate ...

Chekiang And
Chekiang And Fokien.—the Two Provinces Of Chekiang And Fokien Belong Neither To The Basin Of The Yangtse Nor To That Of The Si-kiang. Lying Along The South-east Coast Of China, They Are To A Great Extent Cut Off From The Interior By The Various Ranges Of The Chinese Massif Which ...

Chile
Chile The Republic Of Chile, Which Extends From The Nineteenth Parallel Of South Latitude Along The West Coast Of South America To The Extremity Of The Continent, Has A Length Of 2,625 Miles, A Breadth Varying From 65 To 185 Miles, And An Area Of 292,500 Square Miles. It Therefore ...

China Proper
China Proper The Physical Features Of China Are Extremely Complicated And Can Only Be Sketched Here In Broad Outline. The Country Is On The Whole Mountainous, But There Are Several Plains Of Considerable Importance. North China Belongs In Part To The Mid-world Moun Tain System, Its Western Half Being Enclosed ...

Climate A
Climate.-a Comparison And Study Of The Position Of The Iso Thermal Lines For January And July Throw A Considerable Amount Of Light Upon The General Conditions Which Determine The Tempera Ture Of North America. In January The Isotherms, Outside Of The Tropics, Trend From North-west To South-east With A Curve ...

Climate Of South
Climate Of South America.—for Various Reasons The Climate Of South America Differs Greatly From That Of North America. Both Continents Taper To The South, With The Result That Of The Latter Only A Small Part Lies Within The Tropics, While Of The Former Less Than One-fifth Falls Beyond Them. North ...

Climatic Conditions
Climatic Conditions. —with The Exception Of The Last-mentioned Region The Climate Of Siam Is Monsoonal In Character, And There Are Three Seasons, A Cool, A Hot, And A Rainy. The Mean Temperature Is High Throughout The Year, And In The Lowlands Does Not Fall Below 70°f. Even During The Cool ...

Commerce
Commerce Between Europe And India Has Existed From Very Early Times, But Its Character Has Undergone Various Important Changes. When Trade Was Carried On By Routes Partly Overland, And Even For A Considerable Time After The Discovery Of The Seaway By The Cape, The Chief Articles Sent From Or To ...

Communications
Communications Are Still In A Very Undeveloped State. The Mountainous Nature Of Much Of The Country, The Steep Escarpment Between The Sea And The Interior, The Heavy Rains, And The Luxuriant Vegetation, Are All Hostile To Roads. In The North, The Amazon Acts As A Great Highway, And Is Navigable ...

Communications And
Communications And Towns.—tientsin, Situated On The Pei-ho, A Little Below The Place Where The River Is Joined By Its Principal Tributaries, Is The Great Collecting And Distributing Centre Of The Hwang-ho Basin And The Most Important Seaport Of North China. Owing To The Rocky Bed In The Upper Part Of ...

Communications And_2
Communications And Trade.—the Uganda Railway, Which Runs From Mombasa To Port Florence, Is The Chief Means Of Com Munication In The Protectorate. From Mombasa It Ascends, Often By Steep Gradients, To A Height Of Nearly 8,000 Feet On The Eastern Escarpment Of The Rift Valley. After Descending About 2,000 Feet ...

Communications Of South
Communications Of South Africa.—the Railway System Of South Africa May Best Be Considered As A Whole. From Capetown, A Line Runs Across The Karroo And The High Veld To Kimberley, And Then On Through Bechuanaland And The Bechuanaland Protectorate To Bulawayo In Southern Rhodesia, Where It Branches. One Part Goes ...

Communications Of The Iberian
Communications Of The Iberian Peninsula.—madrid, Which Is The Natural Meeting-place Of Routes Across The Meseta, May Be Regarded As The Centre Of The Railway System Of The Iberian Peninsula. It Is Connected With The French Railways By A Line Which Crosses The Sierra De Guadarrama, And, After Passing Through Valladolid ...

Croatia Slavonia
Croatia-slavonia Is Mountainous In The West, Lowland In The East. The Greater Part Of The Mountainous Region Falls Within The Karst Country, Which Has Already Been Described ; But In The North, The Uplands Are Somewhat More Fertile. In The Lowlands, Where Climatic Conditions And Soil Are Similar To Those ...

Derbyshire The Yorkshire
The Yorkshire, Derbyshire, And Nottinghamshire Coal Field.—this Coalfield Occupies A Great Basin Of Which The Western Part Alone Is Exposed, The Eastern Part Lying Concealed Under An Accumulation Of Permian And Later Rocks. The Exposed Portion Is Bounded On The West By The Millstone Grit Of The Pennines, And On ...

Eastern
Eastern Siberia.—the Greater Part Of Eastern Siberia Is Imperfectly Known, As Far At Least As Its Economic Resources Are Concerned. Most Of The Land Is Covered With Forest, And The Pro Portion Fit For Agriculture Is Believed To Be Much Lower Than In Western Siberia. The Climate Also Is More ...

Europe
Europe Forms The Western Part Of The Great Continental Land Mass Of Eurasia, And On Physical Grounds Alone Can Hardly Be Considered A Separate Continent. But Its Peninsular Character And Greatly Indented Coast Line, Its Climate, And Above All The Political And Economic Development Of The Majority Of Its Inhabitants, ...

Foreign
Foreign Trade.—in Dealing With The Foreign Trade Of Belgium A Careful Distinction Must Be Drawn Between The Special And General Exports And Imports Of The Country. In This Paragraph Only The Special Trade Is Discussed. The Imports Consist Largely Of Food Stuffs And Raw Materials, While Goods, Wholly Or Partly ...

Foreign_2
Foreign Trade.—the Table Shown At The Top Of The Next Page Indicates The General Character Of The Foreign Trade Of Germany. These Figures Offer An Interesting Addition To The General Con Siderations Discussed Above. They Show That The Imports Of Germany Consist In The Main Of Food-stuffs And Raw Materials, ...

Foreign_3
Foreign Trade.—the Foreign Trade Of Japan Has Made Rapid Progress Within The Last Quarter Of A Century. In 1884 The Combined Value Of Exports And Imports Amounted To About £6,000,000, While For The Five Years 1906-10 The Average Value Of The Exports Was £43,500,000, And Of The Imports £46,400,000. The ...

Formosa
Formosa, Which Has An Area Of About 14,000 Square Miles And A Population Of About 3,000,000, Is Being Rapidly Developed By The Japanese. The Low-lying Western Part Of The Island Is Settled By People Of Chinese Stock, While The Mountainous Eastern Part Is Occupied By Aboriginal Tribes, Said To Be ...

France
France Economic Development Of France Has At All Times Been Greatly Influenced By The Fact That It Lies Between The Atlantic And The Mediterranean, With Easy Access To Both, And With Good Routes Connecting The One With The Other. The Physical Features Of The Country Are Comparatively Simple. The Central ...

General
General Considerations.—in Order To Realise The Extent To Which Geographical Conditions Have Contributed To Establish The British Isles In The Pre-eminent Position Which They Occupy In The Economic World Of The Present Day, Certain Considerations Of A General Nature Must Be Taken Into Account. In The First Place, The Posi ...

General_2
General Resume.—from This Survey Of The Natural Regions Of France Certain Deductions May Be Drawn. It Is Obvious That The Country Is Greatly Favoured Not Only By The Abundance Of Fertile Land Which It Contains, But By The Variety Of Crops Which Its Climate And Soil Enable It To Produce. ...

General_3
General Considerations.—a Survey Of The Natural Regions Of Germany And Of Their Economic Activities Shows That In Some Respects The Geographical Endowment Of The Country Is But Moderate. The Soil Is Often Infertile, And Although Less Than 10 Per Cent. Of The Total Area Is Actually Unproductive, Much Of The ...

General_4
General. Considerations.—the Present State Of Economic Development In China Is Due In Part To Considerations Of A Geo Graphical Nature. As The Country Falls Within The Monsoon Area It Supports A Large Population, The Size Of Which Has Been Variously Estimated, But Which Probably Numbers Between 300 And 400 Millions. ...

General_5
General Considerations.—owing To The Irregular Topography Of The Country The Cultivable Land Is Very Limited, And Does Not Exceed 20 Per Cent. Of The Whole Area. As Japan For Long Sup Ported A Population At Least As Great As That Of Great Britain Now Is, Without Importing Food Supplies From ...

General_6
General Considerations.—the Economic Development Of Australia Has Been, And Is Likely To Be, Controlled In A Remarkable Degree By Its Geographical Position And Conditions. The Great Distance Of The Continent From Europe, And From Lands Occupied By People Of European Stock, Naturally Tended To Restrict Immigration, Especially At A Time ...

Germany
Germany German Empire Has An Area Of 210,248 Square Miles. Broadly Speaking, Three Great Physical Areas May Be Distinguished : The Alpine Foreland, The Central Highlands, And The Northern Low Lands. The First Of These Regions, Which Slopes Down Towards The North, Has An Average Elevation Above Sea Level Of ...

Holland
Holland Has An Area Of 12,648 Square Miles And A Population Which, In 1911, Numbered 6,000,000. Although All The Great Geological Formations Are Represented In The Country Nearly 99 Per Cent. Of The Whole Area Is Of Quaternary Age. About Two-fifths Of It Consists Of Diluvial Lands Formed By An ...

Hungary
Hungary Two Great Physical Types—mountains And Plains—are Represented In The Structure Of Hungary. Of The Former The Most Important Are The Carpathians, Which Begin At The Danube, Opposite The Eastern Extremity Of The Alps, And Extend In A Great Curve Running North East, East, South-east, And Finally West, To The ...

India
India Main Physical Regions Of India May Be Comprehended At A Glance. On The North-west, North, And North-east Lie The Great Mountainous Borderlands, And Separating Them From The Plateau Of Peninsular India Is The Wide Indo-gangetic Depression. From The Pamirs The Himalayas Extend In The Form Of A Scimitar As ...

Ital
Ital Y The Southern Or Italian Slope Of The Alps Differs In Several Respects From The Northern. The Descent Is Much More Abrupt, And In The West The Outer Rocks Are Entirely Wanting. Further East The Lime Stone Appears, But Nowhere Is It So Fully Developed As On The Northern ...

Japan
Japan Five Large And Four Thousand Small Islands Which Form The Nucleus Of The Empire Of Japan Are The Remains Of A Great Mountain System Lying Off The East Coast Of Asia, With Which They Were Once Connected. Their Total Area Is About 161,000 Square Miles, Or One And A ...

Java
Java, Along With Madura, Has An Area Of 50,554 Square Miles. The Island Is Mountainous Throughout ; But The Soil, Almost Every Where Derived From Volcanic Mud, Is Very Fertile. The Mean Temperature Is About 80° F., And The Mean Annual Rainfall Of The Greater Part Of The Island Is ...

Kamerun
Kamerun The German Colony Of Kamerun Has An Area Of 191,000 Square Miles. The Country Rises From A Flat Coastal Plain To The High Land Of The African Plateau, Which Falls Away On The East To The Basin Of The Congo, And On The North To The Depression Of Lake ...

Korea
Korea In The Peninsula Of Korea, As In Eastern Asia Generally, The Mountains Tend To Run Parallel To The Coast Line. In The North, Where They Are A Continuation Of Those Of Eastern Manchuria, They Cut Across The Peninsula, But Further South They Form An Axis To It And Divide ...

Manufactures Of
Manufactures Of India.—the Manufactures Of India Fall Into Two Entirely Different Categories. Some Are Carried On By Methods Which Have Been Practised By The People From Time Immemorial, Either In Their Own Homes Or In Small Workshops, While Others Are Followed In Factories Planned On European Lines. In Some Cases, ...

Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia, Which Belongs To The Basins Of The Tigris And Euphrates, Lies Between The Syrian Desert And The Hill Country Bordering The Iranian Plateau. The Land Has A Gradual Slope From The North-west As Fax As An Old Coast Line, Which Runs From Hit On The Euphrates Towards Samara ...

Mexico
Mexico Greater Part Of Mexico Lies Between The United States Frontier And The Isthmus Of Tehuantepec, And Consists Of A Plateau Rising From An Elevation Of 4,000 Feet In The North To About 8,000 Feet In The South. The Plateau Is Bordered On The East By The Sierra Madre Oriental, ...

Mongolia
Mongolia Includes Parts Of Two Of The Great Physical Regions Of Asia. The North-west Of The Country Consists Of The Altai And Other Mountains Which Belong To The Central Asian Highlands, While The Remainder Forms The Mongolian Plateau Which Has An Average Elevation Of 3,000 To 4,000 Feet, And Is ...

Natural
Natural Regions.—geological Structure, Land Form, And Climatic Conditions All Serve To Mark Off Fairly Well The Major Natural Regions Of The British Isles. The Areas Of Ancient Rocks Are Generally Uplands, And Being Uplands Have A Higher Rainfall And A Lower Temperature Than The Neighbouring Lowlands, With The Result That ...

Natural Regions Of North
Natural Regions Of North America. Canada.—as The Greater Part Of Canada East Of The Cordillera Drains Into The Gulf Of St. Lawrence, Hudson Bay, And The Arctic Ocean, While The Corresponding Part Of The United States Drains Into The Atlantic And The Gulf Of Mexico, There Is Some Justification For ...

Natural_2
Natural Regions.—except In The North-east And North-west, The Greater Part Of Southern Nigeria Is Covered By The Tropical Forest, Which Also Extends Up The Valley Of The Niger Into The Southern Part Of Northern Nigeria. The Remainder Of The Country Falls Within The Savanna Lands Of The Sudan, As Far ...

Navigable Waterways
Navigable Waterways Play An Important Part In The Move Ment Of Goods From One Part Of France To Another, And Carry About One Fifth Of The Total Tonnage. They Belong To Three Classes—free Rivers, Canalised Rivers, And Canals—and They Are Connected With One Another So As To Form An Extensive ...

New Zealand
New Zealand Dominion Of New Zealand Includes North Island, South Island (sometimes Called Middle Island), And Stewart Island, Along With The Chatham Islands And Several Other Groups In The Sur Rounding Seas. The Total Area Amounts To 104,751 Square Miles, Which Is Rather More Than Five-sixths Of The Area Of ...

Newfoundland
Newfoundland The Island Of Newfoundland Has An Area Of 42,700 Square Miles. It Belongs In The Main To The Laurentian Region, Though In The West There Are Carboniferous Rocks Which Are The Continuation Of Those In Cape Breton Island. The Climate Is, On The Whole, Less Extreme Than On The ...

North America
North America, Which May Be Considered To Extend As Far South As The Isthmus Of Tehuantepec, Has An Area, Exclusive Of Greenland And The West Indies, Of A Little More Than 8,000,000 Square Miles. It Therefore Contains About One-seventh Of The Land Surface Of The Globe, And Comes Third In ...

Norway
Norway The Greater Part Of The Norwegian Population Is Found In The Agricultural Region, That Is, On The Raised Beaches Along The Coast, On The Delta Lands Of The Fjords And Lakes, In The Valleys Of The Rivers Which Penetrate The Plateau, And In The Christiania Region Where The Soils, ...

Nyasaland
Nyasaland The British Protectorate Of Nyasaland Consists Of A Strip Of Country Which Lies Along The West And South Shores Of Lake Nyasa, And Extends Southwards As Far As Chiwonga On The Shire River. The Lowlands Increase In Height From 125 Feet At Chiwonga To Over 1,500 Feet Along The ...

Paraguay
Paraguay, With An Area Of 172,000 Square Miles, Belongs To Two Very Different Regions. Eastern Paraguay, Which Lies Between The Parana And Paraguay Rivers, Is Part Of The Western Slope Of The Brazilian Highland, But The Hills Seldom Reach A Height Of Over 2,000 Feet, And The General Elevation Of ...

Peru
Peru Peru, The Fourth In Size Among The States Of South America, Has An Area Of 695,700 Square Miles. In It Three Natural Regions Stand Out In Marked Contrast To One Another. The First Of These Is The Coastal Region. Between The Sea And The Foothills Of The Andes, There ...

Physical
Physical Features.—the Coast Land, Of Recent, And Largely Of Deltaic, Formation, Is Fringed In Places By Lagoons. Further Inland, And Covering A Considerable Part Of Southern Nigeria, Is An Intermediate Belt Of Clays, Sandstones, And Shales, Which Have Built Up A Plain That Rises In The North To A Height ...

Physical Conditions Of Economic
Physical Conditions Of Economic Activity Geography May Be Defined As The Study Of The Influence Exerted Upon The Economic Activities Of Man By His Physical En Vironment, And More Especially By The Form And Structure Of The Surface Of The Land, The Climatic Conditions Which Prevail Upon It, And The ...

Portuguese East Africa
Portuguese East Africa Portuguese East Africa, Which Extends Along The Coast From Natal To German East Africa, And Inland To The Borders Of The Transvaal, Rhodesia, And Nyasaland, And The Eastern Shores Of Lake Nyasa, Has An Area Of About 300,000 Square Miles And A Population Which Is Estimated At ...

Russia
Russia [ow Depression Which Runs From The Black Sea To The Baltic, By The Valleys Of The Dnieper And The Pripet And The Plains Of The Vistula, Separates Two Entirely Different Geographical Regions ; And In The Contrasts Between Them In Regard To Position And Configuration, Structure And Geology, Climate ...

Russian Central Asia
Russian Central Asia This Region May Be Considered As Including That Part Of Asia Which Borders Upon Siberia (including The Steppe Governments Of Akmolinsk And Semipalatinsk), Chinese Turkestan, The Pamirs, Afghanistan, Persia, The Caspian Sea, And European Russia. It Has An Area, Including The Semi-independent Khanates Of Khiva And Bokhara, ...

Sardinia
Sardinia Is Likewise A Fragment Of The Tyrrhenian Block. The Interior Is Wild And Forested, But On The Lower Slopes Of The Hills The Usual Products Of The Mediterranean Region Are Grown. Oranges And Lemons Thrive, Especially On The Volcanic Soils Of Monte Ferru. The Chief Economic Products Of The ...

Scandinavia
Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Consists Of A Plateau With A Gentle Slope To The East And An Abrupt Slope To The West. This Plateau Which Has An Average Elevation Of About 3,000 Feet, And To Which The Names Kjolen And Fjeld Have Been Applied, Is Not Continuous From North To South, ...

Servia
Servia Servia Has An Area Of 18,650 Square Miles, And A Population Of About 2,900,000. The Greater Part Of The Country Is Mountainous ; In The West And In The South Are The Ancient Formations Of The Thraco-macedonian Region, While, In The Balkan Districts Of The East, Ranges Of Crystalline ...

Shikoku Honshiu
Honshiu, Shikoku, And Kiushiu.—northern Honshiu Is In Some Respects Very Different From The Remainder Of This Region. Its Climate And Vegetation Are Intermediate Between Those Of Hokkaido And Southern Japan, And, While Rice Is Grown Throughout The Whole Area, The Mulberry And Tea Plant Are Not Extensively Cultivated Further North ...