CANDIA, the capital of the island or Candia, and from which the island derives its name, is situated on a beautiful plain, watered by the river Ceratus. It is supposed, both by Savary and Sonnini, to occupy the site of the ancient Ileraclea; but Olivier rather refers it to port Panormus, which, according to Ptolemy, lay between Cytxtim and Ileraclea. It received its present name from the Saracens, who, on their first arrival upon the island, built the fortress of Chandak, which, in the Arabic language, signifies " entrenchment," and which was converted by the Venetians into Candia.
This city is of a semicircular form, about four miles in circumference, and is strongly fortified by walls, ditches, and advanced works ; and its approaches by sea are defended by a strong wall, built on rocks, and mounted with several pieces of cannon. Its streets and squares are regular and well built, and are evidently the work of the Venetians; but several divisions of the city are void of inhabitants, many of whom, together with the foreign merchants, have removed to Cauca. It is, how ever, still the residence of the Paella Serasquier and his military council, which consists of a kyaia or lieute nant, an aga of the janissaries, two commanders of the artillery, a treasurer-general of the imperial revenues, a keeper of the imperial treasury, and the chief officers of the army. Of the many beautiful churches built by the Venetians, three only are now possessed by the Christians, the handsomest having been converted into mosques. The Jews have a synagogue here, and the
Capuchins a small convent. The harbour of Candia is naturally a fine boson, securely sheltered from every storm; and, if properly cleared, would contain from thirty to forty sail of merchant vessels. But the Turks, by their general improvidence, have allowed it to be so choked up with mud and sand, that boats and the small barks of the country only can enter it, and the docks and arsenals, which were constructed by the Venetians for building galas, and putting them under cover when laid up, are also allowed to fall fast into decay. Ships that load at this port must take in their cargoes at Stan Dia, a small island about four leagues off, and opposite to Candia, where the goods are conveyed in boats, and where there are three capital road-steads in its south quarter. From this inconvenience, the trade of Candia, which was so extensive and flourishing under the Vene tians, is now almost annihilated ; and with its trade have also fled the majority of its inhabitants. Its population scarcely amounts to 14,000, of whom 2000 or 3000 only are Greeks, and 60 Jews. Candia is chiefly famous for its siege ; for which, sec the preceding article, and the references subjoined to it. N. lat. 35° 19', E. long. 25° 18'. (ii)