HYDERABAD, is a province of the Deccan, in India. It is situated between the 18th and 19th degrees of north latitude, and bounded on the north by the Godavery, on the south by the river Krishna, on the east by the province of Gundwana, and on the west by Beeder and Aurungabad. It formed a considerable portion of the ancient kingdom of Telingana, which, in its independent state as a distinct Hindoo comprehended the principal part of the tract between the rivers Godavery and Krishna, and of which the capital city was \Varangol. It was reduced at an early period of the Mahommedan invasion, and afterwards formed part of the great Bhamenee Empire of the Deccan. On the dissolution of this state, Telingana became again the seat of an independent government, under the name of Gol conda, the first sovereign of which, Kooli Kuttub Shah, established the Kuttub Shahy dynasty in 1512. One of his successors, Abdullah Kuttub Shah, who ascended the throne in 1586, became tributary to the Mogul Emperor, Shah Jehan ; and in this state the kingdom remained till when the reigning sovereign, Abou Houssein, was deprived of his capital, Golconda, by the Emperor Aurung imprisoned for life in the fortress of Dowlatabad.
It was not till after a protracted siege, and only, at length, through the treachery of one of the king's sirdars, that the Mogul Emperor obtained possession of the place ; and it is related, that when some of the assailants had fought their way into the apartment, where Abou Houssien was seated at supper, he requested them, with much composure, to sit down and partake with him, and that they quietly accepted the invitation. On the destruction of the Mogul empire, after the death of Aurungzebe, Nizam ul Moolk obtained possession of the Mahommedan conquests in the Deccan, about the year 1717. Under his successors, the limits of the state experienced much fluctuation ; but its power was gradually declining, and would have been totally annihilated by the Mahrattas, had not the British government inter posed for its support. In 1800, a treaty of perpetual alli ance was concluded with Nizam Ali by Major Kirkpatrick on the part of the British ; and by this arrangement a Bri tish force of 8000 regular infantry, and 1000 regular caval ry, with their proper complement of artillery and warlike stores, is stationed in the Nizarn's territories, for their pro tection against hostile neighbours or turbulent subjects. For the regular payment of these troops, the Nizam ceded to the East India Company all the territories which he had acquired by the treaty of Seringapatam in 1792, and by that of Mysore in 1799. In the event of a war taking place,
the Nizam engaged to join the British with 6000 infantry, and 9000 cavalry of his own army, with the necessary train of artillery and stores. By this treaty it was also arranged, that all the external political relations of the parties should be exclusively managed by the British, who undertook to protect his highness's dominions from every annoyance, and particularly to procure a total exemption from all claims of Choute on the part of the Alahrattas. In 1802, a com mercial treaty was negociated, by which the free use of the port of Masulipatam was granted to the Nizam, with a promise of protection to his flag on the high seas; and an equality of duties on the mutual imports and exports was stipulated, the amount of which should not exceed 5 per cent. In 1804, a considerable part of the territories of Dowlet Row Sindia was transferred to the Nizam; by which the Hyderabad sovereignty acquired a great increase of territory, and obtained for the first time a well-defined boun dary. At present, the Nizam's dominions, besides the whole of Hyderabad, comprehend Nandere and Beetle'', the greater part of Berar, and a portion of Arungabad and Begapoor, being divided from the Nagpoor territories by the \Vurda river, and from the British by the Krishna and Toombuddra. Hyderabad, which gives the general name to the sovereignty, is about 180 miles in length, and 150 at its average breadth. The surface ol the province is hilly, but not mountainous ; and it is an elevated table land, much colder in its temperature than the degree of latitude would indicate. In the city of Hyderabad, and the country to the north of it, the thermometer, during three months of the year, is frequently so low as 45°, 40", and 35° of Fahren heit. The soil is fertile, and tolerably well watered, but in differently cultivated, and thinly inhabited. The cultiva tors are wretchedly poor, and much oppressed by their Ma hommedan superiors, who are subject to little restraint from their nominal sovereign. From the same cause, they are almost destitute of the benefits of commerce ; and the average import of European goods into the whole of the Nizarn's dominions, prior to 1809, never exceeded 25,000/. per annum. The principal towns in the province are Hy derabad, Golconda, Warangol, Meduck, and Niecundah ; and the whole population of the district is estimated not to exceed two millions and a half.