PIRE, JAPAN, THIBET, TARTARY, 'MALACCA, CEYLON, SI AM, &c. The history of the principal states of Africa will be found under the articles EGYPT, ARVSSSINIA, CAPE or GOOD HOPE, ALGIERS, MOROCCO, TRIPOLI, TUNIS, &c.
The history of the United States of America, as already mentioned, should be sought for under the articles AmEnt CA and BRITAIN ; of the British colonies there, under the articles CANADA. NOVA SCOTIA, &cc. and also under BRI TAIN; of the Spanish colonies, under the articles BUENOS AYRES, CHILI, MEXICO, PERU, &c. and also under SPAIN; of the. Portuguese settlements, under the head of BRAZIL, and also under PORTUGAL.
V. We shall now conclude this article with a brief no tice of the different species of history, besides that which is emphatically so styled. History, strictly speaking, re lates to the narration of the wars and political events of kingdoms; but besides this species of history, that which relates to the support which Christianity has received from the secular power ; together with the benefits or disadvan tages resulting from this support ; and also to the internal administration of the church, its constitution and disci pline, its doctrine and its worship ; or, in other words, the history of Christianity, of its corruptions and reformation, and of the influence which its principles, or the conduct of its professors, have had on the political condition and af fairs of mankind, may justly be regarded as very intimate ly connected with the species of history which we have been so fully considering. Ecclesiastical history, there fore, ought to be studied, not merely in its religious, but also in its political point of view. Whoever reflects on the power of the Pope for several centuries,—on the friendly relations or wars between the different states of Europe, which they brought ahout,—on the wars arising from the Reformation, and on the great and decided change in the political character and power of the mass of the people which that event produced, must be convinced that ecclesi astical history cannot safely be neglected even by the mere statesman. This article, therefore, ought to be carefully
perused, both by itself, and in connection with the history of the different states of Europe.
The histories of the different arts and sciences are quite of a distinct class from political and ecclesiastical history ; though, to the student of both of these, as well as to the man of science, they must be interesting and useful. The resources and the wealth of states depend mainly on their advances in the arts and sciences; and with respect to the connection of some of the latter with the state of re ligious knowledge, the history of astronomy is sufficiently explanatory. As one of the principal objects and advan tages of history, strictly so called, is to gain an insight into the progress of man in political and individual happiness, surely an acquaintance with the advances which he has made in every species of knowledge, which secures his li berty, or fmultiplies his means of defence or enjoyment, must be interesting and important. Besides, whoever is desirous of satisfactorily accounting for the difference be tween ancient and modern nations, as displayed in their re spective histories, and for the great and decided superiority of the latter, must look beyond mere political history, to the history of those arts and sciences, which were compa ratively unknown to the ancients, and in which the moderns have made such wonderful advances,--advances that will be found, in a great measure, and nearly in every instance, accompanied by, if not really productive of, similar ad vances in national resources and political power. The co pious histories of the arts and sciences, therefore, given in this work, under the respective heads of each art or sci ence, ought by no means to be neglected by such as wish to read political history to advantage ; and if they are pe rused in connection with the statistical account of each country, given along with its history, the causes of the com parative progress of nations in political liberty and power will be very clearly and satisfactorily traced. (w. s.)