RICHMOND, a borough and market town of Eng land, in Yorkshire, is situated on a lofty eminence on the banks of the rive Swale, which-winds in a semicircle round the town. The WWII, which is built on the south ern declivity of the bill, consists of several well-built and well-paved streets, the houses of which are chiefly of freestone. The public buildings are two handsome churches, which are both collegiates, and a good town hall. The market-place is spacious and elegant, and surrounded with good houses.
Richmond Castle, which is grand even in its ruins, stands on the south side of the town overlooking the Swale, which flows in a deep valley below. On all sides except the north, the ascent to the castle is steep and precipitous. The shell of the keep, which is al most entire, is about 100 feet high, and the walls 11 feet thick. The lower story is supported by a huge pillar of stone in the centre, from which circular arches spring and close in the top. The floors of the two up per rooms are fallen in, and the stair case goes only to the great chamber. There is a ruinous tower in the
south-east corner of the aisle, containing a gloomy dun geon about 14 feet deep. The castle, which covers nearly six acres, belongs to the Duke of Richmond. The principal manufactures of Richmond are knit yarn stockings and woollen caps ; but the want of coal and of water carriage is severely felt. The principal arti cles of trade are corn and lead. The corn is sent from the corn market to the dales in the moors, where the ground is all in pasture. The lead is conveyed from the mines about 14 miles west of Richmond, and is then sent to Borough Bridge and Yarm. The town is governed by a mayor, recorder, 24 aldermen, and 24 counsellors. It sends two members to parliament, who are chosen by about 270 electors. The Swale is here crossed by a stone bridge. Population in 1821— See the Beauties of England and Wales, vol. xvi. p. 288.