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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1

Afanasyev Chuzhbinin
(afanasyev-chuzhbinin), Russian Novelist And Ethnographer: B. Poltava, 1817; D. St. Petersburg, 6 Sept. 1875. Graduating From A Gymnasium In 1836 He Entered Military Service But Left It With Disappointment And The Rank Of Lieutenant (1843). In 1847 He Took A Civil Service Position In The Office Of The Governor Of ...

Afghanistan
Afghanistan, Af-ganii-stan, Asia, Lit The Country Of The Afghans" Is The Term Which, In The Present Day, Designates Those Regions Governed By The Amir Of Kabul. The Name ((afghan" Is Supposed To Signify °noisy Or Tumultuous." It Is Very Ancient In Its Origin And Has Gradually Been Assumed By The ...

Africa
Africa, Second In Size Of The Six Con Tinents, With A Continental Area Of 11,262,000 Square Miles And Islands Of 239,000 More, Has The Mediterranean North, The Atlantic West, The Red Sea And Indian Ocean East, The Antarctic Ocean South; And Lies Nearly Due South Of Europe And Southwest Of ...

African Methodist Episcopal Church
African Methodist Episcopal Church, The. Work Among The Negroes Was Begun By The Methodist Episcopal Church At An Early Date. Bishop Asbury Was Much Interested In The Race And Often Preached To Them. "black Harry," A Noted Colored Preach Er, Often Accompanied Bishops Asbury And Coke And Preached To White ...

After Sensation After Image
After-image, After-sensation And After-percept Are The Terms Used To Denote The Direct After-effects Of The Stimu Lation Of A Sense Organ. These After-effects Occur In Almost All Of The Sense Departments. A Brief Stimulation Of The Sense Organ Gives A Primary Sensation, Then A Pause Of A Fraction Of A ...

Agadir
Agadir, Ii-ga-der', An Atlantic Seaport Of Morocco, Northwestern Africa, 375 Miles From Tangier And 64 Miles From Mogador, In Lat. 30° 27' N. And Long. 9° 36' W. It Is Famous Simply Because Its Name Has Been So Prominently Associated With The Franco-german Crisis Of 1911. In The Summer Of ...

Agamemnon
Agamemnon, In The Iliad, Is The Greek °great Icing° Or °king Of Kings,)) The Overlord Of Greece Both North And South Of The Gulf Of Corinth; The Royal Scat Is At Mycenx In The Peloponnesus. He Is Represented As A Rather Weak Man, Presiding Over A Turbulent Assembly Of Practically ...

Agassiz
Agassiz, Louis, American Naturalist: B. 28 May 1807 At Motier, Canton Fribourgg, Switzerland; D. 14 Dec. 1873. From Childhood He Showed A Strong Bent Toward Zoology And, After A Preparatory Training At Lausanne, Studied Medicine And Natural History At Zurich, Heidel Berg And Munich, Taking A Degree In Philosophy At ...

Agate
Agate, A Variety Of Chalcedony, Or Cryp To-crystalline Quartz, Distinguished By Its Banded Or Clouded Appearance Or By The Pres Ence Of Visible Impurities.
Agave
Agave, A Genus Of Remarkable And Beau Tiful Plants, Of The Family Arnaryllidacee, Hav Ing A Tubular Perianth With 6-partite Limb And Triangular Many-seeded Capsule. They Resemble Aloes In Their Growth And General Appearance, And The Best-known Species, Agave Aniericana, Is Sometimes Known As The American Aloe. This Is A ...

Agent
Agent, In Law, One Person Who Acts For Another, Called The Principal. If A Person Acts As Agent Without Authority, The Subsequent Rati Fication Of The Act Will Make It Binding On The Principal Just As If He Had Originally Directed It. When An Agent Acts Within The Scope Of ...

Aggregation
Aggregation, States Of, An Expres Sion Sometimes Used To Signify, Collectively. The Various Physical States In Which Matter Can Exist. For Ordinary Purposes It Is Suffi Cient To Distinguish Two Fundamentally Differ Ent States Of Aggregation, The Solid And Fluid; Fluids Being Further Subdivided Into Liquids And Gases. A Solid ...

Agha Khan
Agha Khan, Title Of The Spiritual Head Of The Indian Ismailites Or Ichodjas, A Mohammedan Sect. The Office Is Vested In A Very Ancient And Sacred Family Said To Be Descended From Mohammed's Daughter, Fati Mah; But More Directly From Hasan Sabbah, Founder Of The Ismailiah Dynasty In Persia (d. ...

Agincourt
Agincourt, Aj 'in-kort, Or Azin Court, I-zhan-koor, France, A Village, Depart Ment Of Pas-de-calais, Famous For A Battle Fought There 25 Oct. 1415. Henry V, King Of England, Eager To Conquer France, Landed At Harfleur, Took The Place By Storm And Wished To March Through Picardy To Calais, In Order ...

Agnosticism
Agnosticism (gr. "unknowing'), A School Of Thought Which Holds That Man Can Know Nothing Of Ultimate Realities, Or Whether They Exist; Since, His Only Means Of Knowledge Being Through Comparison Of Phenomena, The Absolute Could Only Be Cognized By His Senses On Assuming Phenomenal Traits, And Would Then Be Grasped ...

Agra
Agra, I'gra, India, A City In The North West Provinces, On The Right Bank Of The Jum Na, 841 Miles By Rail From Calcutta. It Is A Well-built And Handsome Town And Has Various Interesting Structures, Among Which Are The Imperial Palace, A Mass Of Buildings Erected By Several Emperors; ...

Agrapha
Agrapha, Tig'raf A, Signifying °unwrit Ten," Sayings Not Recorded In The New Testa Ment, But Found In The Mss. Of Early Christian Writers, And Ascribed To Jesus. J. G. Korner First Used The Term In 1776, But Its General Adoption Dates From 1889, When Alfred Resell' Used (agrapha) For The ...

Agrarian Laws
Agrarian Laws, Enactments Framed At Different Times By The Romans To Regulate The Public Domain. In The First Epoch Of The Growth Of Rome, Before The City Had Extended Beyond The Palatine Hill, The Whole Soil Of The State Was Undivided Public Property, And From The State, Consisting Exclusively Of ...

Agreement
Agreement, A Mutual Bargain, Con Tract Or Covenant. Agreements May Be Either Express Or Implied. Express Agreements Are Those Openly Stated And Avowed By The Parties At The Time Of Their Making. Implied Agree Ments Are Those Which The Law Supposes The Parties To Have Made Although The Terms Were ...

Agricola
Agricola, Gums Julius, Life Of The Story Of Agricola's Life Is Told By His Son-in-law, The Historian Tacitus, In What Is, Perhaps, The Most Artistic Biography That Has Come Down To Us From Ancient Times. It Was Avowedly Writ Ten To Do Honor To Its Subject, And Is In No ...

Agricola_2
Agricola, Georg, German Scholar By The Name Of Georg Bauer, Better Known Under Its Latin Version: B. Glauchau, Saxony, 24 March 1494; D. Chemnitz, Saxony, 21 Nov. 1555. He Began His Studies In The University Of Leipzig In 1514, From Which He Graduated In 1517 With The Degree Of B.a. ...

Agricultural Association
Agricultural Association, The Voluntary Association Of Farmers With The Ob Ject Of Promoting A Knowledge Of The Science Of Agriculture. The First Instance On Record Of Such An Organization Is That Of The Society Of Improvers In The Knowledge Of Agriculture, Founded In 1723 By A Group Of Scotch Agri ...

Agricultural Colleges
Agricultural Colleges. As A Result Of National And State Co-operation, Which Enables The Ordinary Farmer To Profit From The Experiments Of Widely Separated Individuals In Terested In Scientific Farming, The United States Stands Foremost In The Matter Of Agricultural Development. As Far Back As 1862 Congress Passed The First Of ...

Agricultural Experiment Station
Agricultural Experiment Station. An Institution For Scientific Re Search In Agriculture. The Modern Agricultural Experiment Station Owes Its Origin Chiefly To The Work Of Boussingault And Liebig, Born Re Spectively In 1802 And 1803, Although The Earlier Work Of Sir Humphrey Davy, De Saussure And Others Had Prepared The Way ...

Agricultural Implement In Dustry
Agricultural Implement In Dustry, The. One Of The Largest Classified Industries Of The Country, Including The Estab Lishments Whose Products Of Greatest Value Are Machines Or Implements Designed For Use In Agriculture. Such Implements Fall Naturally Into Four Groups : (1) Implements Of Cultivation; (2) Seeders And Planters; (3) Harvesting ...

Agricultural Legislation
Agricultural Legislation. United The History Of Agricultural Legislation In The United States Dates Back To 1862 When Congress Granted To The Several States 30,000 Acres Of Land For Each Senator And Representative In Congress With Which To Endow At Least One Agricultural College. In The Same Year The United States ...

Agriculture
Agriculture, Department Of, An Ex Ecutive Department Of The United States, Whose Head Is A Member Of The Cabinet With The Title Secretary Of Agriculture. It Was Formed Early In 1889 Under President Cleveland, The First Sec Retary Being Norman J. Colman Of Missouri; He Was Succeeded In The Same ...

Agriculture In The United
Agriculture In The United States. Land And Labor.— The Two Fac Tors Which, More Than Any Others, Have Given Character To American Agriculture Are: First, An Abundance Of Land And, Sec Ond, A Scarcity Of Labor. These Two Fac Tors Almost Necessarily Belong Together Be Cause Land Is Abundant Whenever ...

Agrigentum
Agrigentum, Ig-ri-je'n'tiiin, A Town In Sicily, Of Which This Was The Roman Name, The Greek Name Having Been Agragas And The Mod Ern Italian Name Being Girgenti. It Is Thought To Have Been Founded By Dorian Colonists About 582 A.c. Its Situation On The Southern Shore Of The Island Was ...

Aguas Calientes
Aguas Calientes, A'gwas Mexico, Capital Of The State Of The Name, On The Line Of The Mexican Central Railroad, 860 Miles South Of El Paso, Tex., 364 Miles North Of The City Of Mexico And 415 Miles Northwest Of Tampico, On The Gulf Of Mexico. Elevation 6,106 Feet Above The ...

Aguinaldo
Aguinaldo, Emilio, Leader Of The Insurgents In The Philippine Insurrection Of 1896, And Their Chief In The Can War Of 1898: B. Imus 1870 Of Chinese And Tagalog Parentage. His Father Was A Planter And He Received His Early Education At The College Of St Jean De Lateran And The ...

Ahab
Ahab, King Of Israel 875-853 (?) Son And Successor Of Omri (1 Kings Xvi-xxii). He Found His Kingdom In Extreme Peril; Whole Districts In The North Had Been Swallowed Up By The Growing Syrian Kingdom With Capital At Damascus, Winch Menaced Its Very Life; And Moab And Edom Were Possessions ...

Aida
Aida, Grand Opera In Four Acts By Guiseppe Verdi (libretto By Camille Du Lode And Antonio Ghislanzoni), First Produced At Cairo, Egypt, On 24 Dec. 1871. Verdi Was In His 59th Year At The Time, But, As The Event Showed, Not Yet In The Full Maturity Of His Powers. He ...

Aintab
Aintab, In-tab, Turkey In Asia, Town In The Villayet Of Aleppo On The Southern Foothills Of Mount Taurus And On The Right Bank Of The River Sajur; 70 Miles Northeast Of Aleppo. Its Strong Mediwval Castle Hamtab Is The Seat Of An Important Military Station. There Is An Active Trade ...

Air Brake
Air Brake. A Brake Operated Through The Medium Of Compressed Air, And Extensively Applied To Railroad Trains And Street Railway Engineer And Inventor, Mr. George Westing House. It Consisted Of A Steam-driven, Direct Acting Air Compressor (see Fig. 1), Carried On The Locomotive, Which Forced Compressed Air Into A Reservoir. ...

Air Compressor
Air Compressor, A Device Used For Compressing Air, Or, In Other Words, Which Makes The Same Weight Of Air Occupy A Less Volume Or A Greater Weight Occupy The Same Volume. Any Device Which Reduces The Volume Of Air With A Pressure Increase Is An Air Com Pressor. When Released ...

Air Plant
Air-plant, More Properly Epiihyte, A Plant Growing Upon The Trunk Or Top Of Another Plant (the Host), But Not Anatomically Connected With It. Air-plants Derive Their Nutriment Chiefly From The Air And Rain, Commonly By Means Of Aerial Roots. Parasitic Plants, On The Other Hand, Are Directly Connected With The ...

Aird
Aird, Ard, Thomas, Scottish Poet Who Has Won Praise From High Critics, But Little Popular Acceptance: B. Roxburghshire 1802; D. 25 April 1876. He Studied In The University Of Edin Burgh, And Formed A Lifelong Intimacy With Carlyle; Contributed To '131acicwood's,' And Won The Warm Good Will Of Wilson; Edited ...

Aisne
Aisne, An, A River In Northern France, With A Total Length Of 280 Miles. A Tributary Of The Oise, The Aisne Rises In The Argonne Forest, Flows North And Then West, Joining The Oise Above Compiegne (on The Left Bank), After Passing Vouziers, Rethel And Soissons, Tak Ing In On ...

Aivazovskii
Aivazovskii, Ivan Konstantinovitch, Russian Painter: B. Feodociya 1817; D. 1900. From His Earliest Years He Showed A Remark Able Talent For Painting. Koch, The Architect Of His Native Town, Discovered His Gift And Also Gave Him A Few Private Lessons In Perspective And Architectural Designing. Thanks To The Influence Of ...

Akron
Akron, Ohio, City And County-seat Of Summit County, Situated In A Range Of Hills Overlooking The Big And Little Cuyahoga Rivers, 35 Miles Southeast Of Cleveland And 130 Miles Northeast Of Columbus. Akron Is Entered By The Baltimore & Ohio, Pennsylvania, Erie, Akron, Canton & Youngstown, And Northern Ohio Railroads. ...

Aksakov
Aksakov, Konstantin Sergeievich, Rus Sian Historian And Publicist: B. 1817; D. 1860. He Grew Up In The Village Of His Birth But When His Parents Moved In 1826 To Moscow He Came Suddenly, As A Nine-year-old Boy, Into The Midst Of The High Life Of Russian Society. From His Earliest ...

Alabama
Alabama. A Gulf State Of The United States, The Ninth In Order Of Admission To The Union. It Is Bounded On The North By Tennes See, South By Florida And The Gulf Of Mexico, East By Georgia, West By Mississippi. Its Ex Treme Length Is About 336 Miles From North ...

Alamanni
Alamanni, Luigi, Italian Poet: B. Flor Ence 1495; D. 1556. His Father Was Zealously Devoted To The Party Of The Medici, And He Him Self Stood In High Favor With The Cardinal Giulio, Who Governed In The Name Of Pope Leo X ; But Conceiving Himself To Have Been Injured ...

Alamo
Alamo, The, San Antonio, Tex.; A Franciscan Mission House Built About 1722 And Called San Antonio De Valerio; After 1793 Used On Occasion As A Fort And Renamed Fort Alamo. It Consisted Of An Oblong Plaza Some 21/2 Acres In Area, Enclosed By Walls 8 Feet High And 33 Inches ...

Alaska
Alaska, Explorations In. Under Rus In Carrying To Completion The Project Of Peter The Great For Explorations To The East Of Kamchatka, Vitus Bering Discovered Alaska In 1741, When He Visited The Saint Elias Region, While His Lieutenant Chirikoff Landed At Cross Sound. Incited By Reports Of Fur Wealth, Enter ...

Alaska
Alaska. The Greatest Of The Territo Ries Of The United States In Area And In Pros Pective Resources. It Practically Is Divided Into Three Distinctive Regions—the Main Territory, The Panhandle Or Southeastern Alaska, And The Aleutian Archipelago. The Main Territory In Cludes All That Part Of The Continent Of North ...

Alaskan Boundary Commis Sion
Alaskan Boundary Commis Sion, A Mixed Tribunal Which Met In London, England, 3 Sept. 1903 To Arbitrate On The Con Tentions Of The Canadian Government With Re Gard To The Boundary Line Between Alaska And Canada, From Mount Saint Elias To The Port Land Canal. The Commission Consisted Of Three ...