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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1

Alliteration
Alliteration, The Succession Or Quent Occurrence Of Words Beginning With The Same Consonant. In The Older Scandinavian. German And Anglo-saxon Poetry It Served In Stead Of Rhyme. It Is Found In Early English Poetry With The Same Function. As Thus Used It Had A Certain Of Accent And Em Phasis. ...

Allori
Allori, A Family Of Artists Who Flourished During The 16th Century In Florence. The Best Of 'them Was Angelo (or Agnolo) Di Cosinto Allori (b. Monticelli, Near Florence, About 1502; D. 1572). Like His Nephew Ales Santato (b. Florence 1535; D. 1607), He Was Surnamed Bronzino, And Both Are More ...

Allotropy
Allotropy, A-lotiro-pi, Or Allot Ropism (from The Greek Altos, °another,' And Tropos, °manner"), The Property Exhibited By Certain Substances Of Existing In Two Or More Different States Distinguished From Each Other By Different Properties. The Most Familiar Case Of Allotropy Is Afforded By Carbon, Which Exists In A Number Of ...

Alloys
Alloys. In The Commercial Sense Of The Term An Alloy Is A Combination Of Two Or More Metals Which Have Been Melted Together. In A Scientific Sense, However, The Term Has A Restricted Meaning. It Signifies A Chemical Com Bination Analogous To The Common Solution Of A Chemical Salt In ...

Alls Well That Ends
All's Well That Ends Well Is One Of Shakespeare's Best Comedies. And One Of The Plays In Which He Has Kept Closest To The Original From Which He Derived His Plot And Yet Has Given The Freest Rein To His Creative Fancy. In The First Volume Of William Paynter's 'pal ...

Allston
Allston, Washington, American Painter And Author: B. Waccamaw, S. C., 5 Nov. 1779; D. Cambridge, Mass., 9 July 1843. In Early Boyhood He Moved To Newport, Where He At Tended School. He Was Graduated From Har Vard In 1800, And In The Following Year Went Abroad, Where He Became A ...

Alluvium
Alluvium, A Word Formerly Applied To The Gravel, Mud, Sand, Etc., Deposited By Water Subsequently To The Noachian Deluge. It Was Op Posed To Diluvium, Supposed To Be Laid Down By The Deluge Itself, Or, In The Opinion Of Others, By Some Great Wave Or Series Of Waves Orig Inated ...

Almanac
Almanac, A Table Or Calendar, In Which Are Set Down The Revolutions Of The Seasons, The Rising And Setting Of The Sun, The Phases Of The Moon, The Most Remarkable Conjunctions, Positions And Phenomena Of The Heavenly Bodies, For Every Month And Day Of The Year; Also The Several Fasts ...

Almohades
Almohades, Alimo-hadz, From The Arabic The Unitarians— The Spanish Name Given To The 12th Cenrurk Moorish Dynasty Which Ruled Northwestcr Africa And Spain. Their Origin Is Traced Abu Abdillah Mohammed Ben Tumart, A De Formed Youth Of Humble Parentage, A Masmuda Berber From The Atlas, Who, As A Traveling Dev ...

Almond
Almond, Armfind, The Tree And Nut Of Amygdalus Commune Of The Family Amygdol Acem, Supposedly A Native Of The Mediterranean Region And Of Southwestern Asia, But So Long In Cultivation That Its Origin Is A Matter Of Conjecture. In Habit Of Grdwth The Tree, Which Reaches A Height Of 20 ...

Alost
Alost, Alast, Flemish Aalst, Alst, Bel Gium, An Historic Town Of East Flanders, On The River Dendre, About Half-way Between Brussels And Ghent. It Was Formerly The Capital Of The County Of Aalst, Which Passed In 1056 Into The Possession Of The Counts Of Flanders Under The Name Of Keizer-vlaanderen. ...

Alphabet
Alphabet (from Alpha And Beta, The First Two Letters Of The Greek Alphabet), The Ordinary Series Of The Letters Or Syllables (in Syllabic Alphabets) Of A Language. For An Ac Count Of What Is Known Or Conjectured Of The Origin Of Alphabetic And Other Systems Of Writ Ing, See Writing. ...

Alps
Alps, The Most Remarkable And Interesting System Of Mountains In Europe. It Covers A Great Part Of Northern Italy, Several Depart Ments Of France, Nearly The Whole Of Switzer Land And A Large Part Of Austria, While Its Ramifications In Italy And Germany, And Ex Tending Far Toward The Southeast, ...

Altar
Altar. From The Latin Alto Ara, A Raised Space. An Elevation Of Any Kind (earth, Grass, Stones, Etc.) Was Used By The Primitive Races As A Sacrificial Spot. With The Commencement Of Culture Altar Construction Came Into Being, Built Of Brick, Stone, Marble, Etc. A Separate Altar Was Dedicated To ...

Altdorfer
Altdorfer, Albrecht, Al' Brent, German Artist: B. Shortly Before 1480, Probably In Ratisbon (regensburg) ; D. There 13 Feb. 1538. One Of The °little Masters" Of German Art (so Called Because Of The Size Of Some Of Their Works, Not Because Of Their Qual Ity). His Father Is Supposed To ...

Alternate
Alternate, In American Politics, A Delegate Chosen To Act In The Place Of The Regu Lar Delegate To A Con Ventif,11 During The Latter's Absence. At All Poilt.m,al ...inventions Since 1840 Alternates In Increasing Numbers Have Been Selected To Attend When Their Principals Did Not Get To The Convention At ...

Alternation Of Generations
Alternation Of Generations. The Term, Alternation Of Generations, Is Applied To The Alternation Of Sexual And Asexual Indi Viduals In The Life History Of A Plant ; E. G., In The Fern, A Small Sexual Plant, Called The Prothal Lium, Which Most People Never See, Bears The Eggs And The ...

Altoona
Altoona, Fil-tooina, Pa., City In Blair County, On The Pennsylvania Railroad, 118 Miles East Of Pittsburg. It Has An Elevation Of 1,182 Feet Above The Sea; Situated In The Midst Of A Most Picturesque Mountain Region, At The Eastern Base Of The Alleghany Mountains. For Many Years Altoona Has Been ...

Alum
Alum, In Chemistry, A General Name For A Large Class Of Substances, Which May Be Defined As Double Sulphates Or Selenates, In Which One Of The Bases Is Aluminum, Chromium, Manga Nese, Iron, Indium Or Gallium, And The Other Is Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Caesium, Am Monium, Silver Or Thallium. The ...

Alumina
Alumina (al200, The Only Oxide Of The Metal Aluminum. As Found Native, Crystallized, It Is Only Second To The Diamond In Hardness. The Transparent Varieties Arc The Sapphire And Ruby, The Opaque Are Corundum And Emery, Only The Corundum Being Pure. In Combination With Silica It Is One Of The ...

Alumino Thermics
Alumino-thermics, A Term Designed To Embrace The Processes Of Reduction Of Metals By Taking Advantage Of The Intense Affinity For Earthy Lustre And Fracture, And Is Soft And Light. Temperatures. The Principal Industrial Applications Of These Processes Are: (1) The Welding Of Iron And Steel In Place As In The ...

Alva
Alva, Arva, Or Alba, Ferdinand Al Varez De Toledo, Duke Of, Spanish Statesman And General: B. 1508; D. Thomar, 12 Jan. 1582. He Was Educated By His Grandfather, Frederick Of Toledo, Who Instructed Him In Military And Political Science. He Commanded Under Charles V In Hungary, And Was Present At ...

Amadis De Gaula
Amadis De Gaula, The Most Famous Romance Of Chivalry In Prose, Was Printed In Its Earliest Extant Edition At Saragossa In 15(€ Its Author Was Garci Rodriguez Or Ordonez De Montalvo, Governor Of Medina Del Campo In Old Castile, Whose Avowed Purpose Was To Draw From Ethe Ancient Originals," Which ...

Amalekites
Amalekites, An Ancient Tribe In The Southeast Of Palestine, Frequently Mentioned In The Old Testament As Enemies Of The Israelites. The Name Is Celebrated In Arabian Tradition, But The Statements In Regard To Them Are Con Flicting And Confused And Almost Worthless From A Historical Point Of View. They Appear ...

Amalgam
Amalgam, An Alloy In Which Mercury Is An Important Constituent. Silver And Gold Amalgams Occur In Nature To A Limited Extent, But Most Of The Amalgams Are Of Artificial Origin. Four General Methods Of Forming Them May Be Noted: (1) By Direct Contact Of Mer Cury With The Metal To ...

Amateur
Amateur. Up To The Middle Of The 19th Century This Now Ever-recurring Word Was Used Exclusively To Define Those Who For The Love Of The Arts, And Not For The Profit To Be Derived From The Exercise Of Them, Painted, Or Engraved, Or Sang. In Such Of The Recreations And ...

Amateur Theatricals
Amateur Theatricals. Amateur Theatricals Have Had A Long And Distinguished History. In The Beginnings Of Art, In The Primi Tive History Of Humanity, All Artists Were Neces Sarily Amateurs. The Renowned Tragedians And Comedians Of Athens Were Amateurs. Ama Teurs Created The Mystery And Morality Plays Of Medieval Times And ...

Amazon
Amazon, The Chief River Of South Amer Ica And The Greatest In All The World. Its Source Is Found In The Peruvian Andes, Its Headwaters, The Maranon And Ucayale Rivers I Uniting In About Long. 74° W. From Long. 70 Its Course Is Wholly In Brazil, And Its Entire Course ...

Ambassador
Ambassador (from The Mediaeval Latin Ambasciator, An Agent), Diplomatic Officer Of The Highest Rank, The Representative Of One Na Tion At The Court Of Another. In This Capacity He Is Expected To Support The Interests And Dig Nity Of His Own State. Ambassadors Are Ordi Nary When They Reside Permanently ...

Amber
Amber, One Of The Most Important And Valuable Of The Fossil Resins. It Is One Of The Oxygenated Hydrocarbons And Its Mineralogical Name, Succinite, Emphasizes One Of Its Distin Guishing Characteristics, Namely, The Presence Of From 5 To 8 Per Cent Of Succinic Acid. Its Com Position Is Represented By ...

Ambrose
Ambrose, Saint, Latin Father Of The Church: B. 333, Or, According To Other Accounts, 334, Probably At Troves (the Ancient Augusta Trevirorum), Where His Father Resided As Pre Torian Prefect Of Gallia Narbonensis; D. Milan, 4 April 397. It Is Told That A Swarm Of Bees Covered The Eyes Of ...

Ambulance Companies
Ambulance Companies. In The United States A Limited Number Of Field Hos Pitals And Ambulance Companies Are Main Tained In Time Of Peace To Provide Trained Or Ganizations For Duty With The Troops When They Are On Field Service And To Afford A Means For Training Officers And Men Of ...

Ambulance Corps
Ambulance Corps. The Modern Army Corps Has Become So Large And Is So Likely To Break Up Into Parts Operating Separately That Its Ambulance Service Does Not Give The Best Results When Kept Together As A Homo Geneous Whole. European Experience Shows That Not The Corps But The Division Should ...

Amenhotep
Amenhotep, I-men-ho-tap, Or Amen Ophis, The Name Of Four Pharaohs Of The 18th Amenophis I Reigned For 10 Years About 1570 A.c. After His Death He Received Divine Honors And Was Made Patron Of The Necropolis Of Thebes. His Mummy Was Dis Covered At Dair-el-bahri And Now Lies In The ...

America
America: A Brief Account Of The Deriva Tion And Meaning Of The Word. The Name Amalric (in Old High German Amalrich Or Amelrich; Gothic Amala-reiks Or -reikis; Variants Am-el, Am-ul And Am-il-rih, -rich Or Ric) Originated Among The Goths In Northern And Central Europe; Was Adopted By Other Nations Of ...

American Art
American Art. The Art History Of America Presents Interesting Conditions Of Re Ceptivity As Well As Original Productivity; In Deed, Artistic Taste, It May Be Claimed, Was Pri Marily Transplanted Or Transfused Into The Bud Ding Art Of "the Fair New True To The Traditions Of Historical Repetition, The Ideals ...

American Baptist Foreign Mission
American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. Among The Five Young Men Whose Sailing To Foreign Lands In 1812 Constituted The Founding Of The Foreign Mis Sion Enterprise Of American Christianity Was Adoniram Judson. On The Long Voyage To India His Study Of The New Testament Led To A Change Of Conviction ...

American Bible Society
American Bible Society, The, Organized In New York In 1816, To Encourage The Wider Circulation Of The Bible. In 1841 An Act Of Incorporation Was Obtained With Privi Leges Which Have Since Been Enlarged. In 1852 The Bible House Was Built, Occupying The Whole Of The Ground Bounded By Third ...

American Board Of Commis
American Board Of Commis Sioners For Foreign Missions, The. This Is The Oldest Foreign Missionary Society In America, Having Been Organized In 1810. Its Voting Members Are The Members Of The Congregational National Council With 150 Additional, Selected At Large. The Board Has 650 Americans Working In Its 19 Missions ...

American Civic Association
American Civic Association, The, A Voluntary Organization Formed 10 June 1904 By The Consolidation Of The American League For Civic Improvement And The Amer Ican Park And Outdoor Art Association, Its Objects Being A The Cultivation Of Higher Ideals Of Civic Life And Beauty In America, The Pro Motion Of ...

American Climatological As Sociation
American Climatological As Sociation, A Medical Organization Founded In New York City In 1884 "for The Study Of Climatology, Hydrology, And Diseases Of The Circulatory And Respiratory Organs." Candi Dates For Membership Must Have Contributed Something To The Literature Of The Subjects Before Election, This Insuring A Select Member Ship, ...

American College
American College, The. Its Place And Importance.— The American College Has No Exact Counterpart In The Educational System Of Any Other Country, Although Its Elements Are Derived From European Systems, And In Partic Ular From Great Britain. And While It Is True That The Primary Form Of Organization In Our ...

American Diplomacy
American Diplomacy. It May Be Justly Claimed That The United States, In Its Brief Existence As A Nation, Has Exercised A Greater Influence In The Same Period In Molding International Law Than Any Other Nation ; And It Has Done Much To Raise The Standard Of Diplo Matic Practice. From ...

American Expansion Policy
American Expansion Policy. There Is No More Significant Movement In Modern History Than That Of The Migrating Pro Cession Which, Receiving Its Start From European Conditions And Breaking Barrier After Barner, Swept Across The American Continent Within The Last Century And Finally Established Ameri Can Influence And Enterprise In The ...

American Federation Of Catholic
American Federation Of Catholic Societies, The. Founded In Cincinnati, Ohio, 10 Dec. 1901. The Federa Tion Is An Organization Of Catholics In The United States For The Purpose Of Advancing Their Civil, Social And Religious Interests. It Is Not A Political Organization, And Does Not Con Trol The Political Affiliation ...

American Federation Of La
American Federation Of La Bor, A Federation Of Trade-unions Of The United States, Canada, Porto Rico And Pan Ama, In Which The Rights Of Constituent Tinits Are Preserved Intact. As In The Federal Gov Ernment, All Powers Not Expressly Granted In The Written Constitution Are Reserved To The Subordinate Bodies, ...

American Historical Associa Tion
American Historical Associa Tion. A National Organization Of Persons Interested In History And In The Promotion Of Historical Work And Studies. It Was Founded At Saratoga, N. Y., In 1884, By A Group Of Repre Sentative Scholars, And In 1889 Was Incorporated By Act Of Congress, Its National Character Being ...

American Institute Of Elec
American Institute Of Elec Trical Engineers. This Is The National Organization Representing The Electrical En Gineering Profession. It Was Founded In 1884. Its Objects Are The Advancement Of The Theory And Practice Of Electrical Engineering, And Of The Allied Arts And Sciences, The Maintenance Of A High Professional Standing Among ...

American Jewish Historical Society
American Jewish Historical Society. This Society Was Founded At A Meeting Held In The City Of New York 7 June 1892. Its Purpose Is To Collect, Preserve And Publish Material Having Reference To The Settle Ment And History Of The Jews On The American Continent, And To Promote The Study ...

American Lakes
American Lakes, Neutrality Of The. During The War Of 1812 Each Party Struggled To Secure Control Of The Lakes. In The Negotia Tions For Peace The British Demanded Military Control Of These Waters To Prevent The Expense Of Rival Armaments. This Proposition Of A One-sided Disarmament Was Not Accepted; But ...

American Landscape Painting
American Landscape Painting. Landscape Has Always Been A Characteristic And Distinctive Element In American Painting. Just As There Is Something Especial In American Writ Ing On Nature In The Work Of Thoreau, Bur Roughs, Muir, So There Is Something Especial In The American Painting Of Nature. In The Early Days ...

American Library Associa Tion
American Library Associa Tion. A National Association *to Promote The Welfare Of Libraries In America.* It Aims (1) By Organization And Force Of Numbers To Effect Needed Reforms And Improvements, Most Of Which Could Not Be Brought About By Individ Ual Effort; (2) By Co-operation To Lessen Labor And Expense ...

American Literature
American Literature. A Hun Dred Years Ago And For Half A Century After Ward, Every Assembly Of Students In This Coun Try Was Entertained By Discussions On A °pos Sible Literature" Of America,— How Soon There Would Be An American Literature Was A Favorite Question, Grief Or Complaint That There ...

American Loyalists
American Loyalists. The American Colonies Were All Infested With Internal Enemies During The Revolution. This Hostile Element, While Averse To The Oppressive Measures Of The British Government, Was Still More Averse To Independence. Its Guiding Principle Was Loyalty To The Crown: Hence The Name €loyalists,* Which Has Found General Acceptance ...

American Medical Associa Tion
American Medical Associa Tion, The. On 5 May 1846, A National Med Ical Convention Of Delegates From Societies And Colleges In The Whole Unions Con Vened In New York City. A Second Meeting Was Held In Philadelphia The Following Year And On 5 May 1847 This Body Resolved Itself Into ...

American Museum Of Natural
American Museum Of Natural History, New York City, Situated In Man Hattan Park, Occupies A Palatial Building Ex Tending Along The Whole Front Of The North Side Of 77th Street, Between Central Park West And Columbus Avenue. The Institution Was Incor Porated Under A Charter Of 6 April 1869, And ...

American Mythology
American Mythology. Ameri Can Is Here Used With The Signification Of The United States. The Myths To Be Dealt With And The Social Systems Built Up About Them Are Much Wider-reaching Than The Territory In Cluded Within The American Union. They Extend As Far North As Hudson Bay, Spread Ing ...