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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1

America
America, The Second In Size Of The Iso Lated Land Masses Of The Globe ; Containing About Three-tenths Of The Total Land Surface And Per Haps Half The Cultivable Area, But Less Than One Tenth The Population. The Name Was Originally Used Only For Central Brazil, And Was Applied In ...

American Party
American Party, The Name Of Three Separate Political Organizations In The United States. 1. The Only One Of Great Importance, Usually Styled °know-nothings.° The Genesis Of This Party Lay Deep In The Nature Of American Set Tlement And History. The Constitution Crystal Lized Political Parties Definitely Into Federalists And Anti-federalists ...

American Philosophical So Ciety
American Philosophical So Ciety, The, Is The Oldest Scientific Society In America. Benjamin Franklin, In His 'auto Biography,' States That In The Year 1727 'i United The Majority Of Well-informed Persons Of My Acquaintance Into A Club Which We Called The Junto, The Object Of Which Was To Improve Our ...

American Political Issues
American Political Issues, By This Term Is Here Meant The Issues Which Swayed The Voters In The Presi Dential Elections, And In The Congressional Elec Tions Of The Presidential Years. These Elections Were The "round-up" Or Register Of The Accumu Lated Drift During The Four Years Previous, And Formed One ...

American Sculpture
American Sculpture, Historical Subjects In. American Art In The Colonial And Revolutionary Periods Was Confined Chiefly To Portrait Painting. At The Beginning Of The 19th Century There Was To All Practical Purposes No Such Thing As An Art Of Sculpture In The United States. Mural Painting, As A Branch Of ...

American Society Of Civil
American Society Of Civil En Hneers, An Association Organized 5 Nov. ,852, In The City Of New York, Its Object Being He Professional Improvement Of Its Members, He Encouragement Of Social Intercourse Among Nen Of Practical Science, The Advancement Of !ngineering In Its Several Branches, And Of Architecture, And The ...

American Society Of Mechan
American Society Of Mechan Ical Engineers, A Professional Organi Zation Composed Of Engineers Practising Prin Cipally In The Department Of Generation, Dis Tribution And Utilization Of Mechanical Power And The Processes Of Manufacture By Mechani Cal Processes. It Is One Of Four Organizations Of Engineers, National In Its Character And ...

American Street Railways
American Street Railways. The Idea Of The Street Railway Grew Out Of The Steam Railroad Agitation When The First Steam Railroad Was Built In The United States In 1829. This Idea Rapidly Materialized And The First Street Railway Was Built In New York City In 1832, The Tracks Being Laid ...

American Sugar Refining Com
American Sugar Refining Com Pany, The, An Organization Which, Since 1900, Holds A Dominant Position In The Sugar Industry. It Was Formed By The Consolidation Of The Havemeyer And Other Interests Into One Group. It Operates Five Large Refineries In The United States, At Chalmette, La., Brooklyn, N. Y., Jersey ...

American Tract Society
American Tract Society, The. This Society Was Organized In New York City On 11 May 1825. Its Work Is Interdenomina Tional And International In Scope, And Is Com Mended By All Evangelical Denominations. The Design Of Its Founders Was To Estab Lish A Central Society For The Whole Union, Inviting ...

American War Commission To
American War Commission To Russia. On 1 May 1917 It Was Announced Hat Elihu Root Had Been Appointed Head Of He War Commission From The United States To 2ussia; And A Fortnight Later The Commission Eft Washington, Carrying Greetings To The New Lemocratic Government Of Russia And Author Zed To ...

Americanisms
Americanisms, In Language, Are Words Or Phrases Peculiar To The English Speech Of The United States Or Of British America. They May Be: (1) Forms Originating In America; Or (2) Forms That Have Emigrated From Britain And That Have Continued In Use Here While They Are Obsolete There; Or (3) ...

Americanists
Americanists (from Americanistes), All Those Who Devote Themselves To The Study Of (1) The Native Races Of America— Their Origin, Distribution, History, Physical Characteris Tics, Languages, Inventions, Customs And Re Ligions; (2) The History Of The Early Contact Between America And The Old World. The Name Was Probably First Given ...

Amery
Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice Sten Nett, English Journalist And Politician: B. Go Ralchpore, India, 22 Nov. 1873. Educated At Har Row And Balliol College, Oxford, He Secured Several °firsts" And The Ousley Scholarship In Turkish, As Well As A Fellowship For History At All Souls' College, Oxford. In 1896-97 He ...

Ames
Ames, Adelbert, American Soldier: Rockland, Me., 31 Oct. 1835. Graduating A: West Point In 1861 He Was Assigned To The Ar Tillery And Served Through The Civil War Will Distinction; Was Wounded At Bull Run And Bre Vetted For Gallantry There; Took Part In Nearly All The Battles Of The ...

Ames_2
Ames, Fisher, American Orator And States Man : B. Dedham, Mass., 9 April 1758; D. There, 4 July 1808. His Father Died When He Was Six. A Precocious Scholar, He Was Graduated From Harvard At 16; Taught School Some Years To Support His Impoverished Family, Cultivating Himself By Wide Reading ...

Ames_3
Ames, Oakes, American Manufacturer And Promoter: B. Easton, Mass., 10 Jan. 1804; D. 8 May 1873. The Son Of A Blacksmith Who Had Become A Manufacturer Of Highly Reputed Picks And Shovels, He Trained Himself In His Father's Works, And With His Brother Joined The Firm As Oliver Ames & ...

Amherst
Amherst, Jeffery, Baron, British Soldier Remembered For His American Services : B. Kw. England, 29 Jan. 1717; D. 3 Aug. 1797. He Was A Duke's Page, By His Favor Entering The Army Ensign At 14, And Became General Lord Ligo Nier's Aide; Served Through The War Of The Am Trian ...

Amherst College
Amherst College, One Of The Best Known Institutions Of Learning In The United States, Is Situated In Amherst, Hampshire County, Mass. The Cornerstone Of The Present South College, The First Of The College Buildings, Was Laid On 9 Aug. 1820, And Upon This Occasion An Address Was Delivered By Noah ...

Amici
Amici, A-meche, Giovanni Batista, A: Italian Savant: B. In Modena 1786; D_ 18t4 He Studied Natural History At Bologna, And Mathematics At Modena. He Became Profsco. Of Mathematics At The College Of Panaro, And For Some Time General Inspector Of Educatioe In Modena, Where In 1831 The Grand Duke O: ...

Amide
Amide (am'id; From Ammonia, + Ide), In Chemistry, A General Name For A Class Of Bodies Which May Be Regarded As Derived From Am Monia, Nh,, By Replacing One Or More Of The Hydrogen Atoms In That Substance By An Equal Number Of Monovalent Acid Radicals. Thus Formic Acid, H.co.oh, ...

Amiels Journal Intime
Amiel's Journal Intime. Henri Frederic Amid, Though For More Than 30 Years Professor In The Academy Of Geneva, Is Remembered Almost Solely For His 'journal In Time,' To Which He Confided Thoughts And Im Pressions, Chiefly Psychological, That He Could Not Find The Will To Publish During His Life. He ...

Amiens
Amiens, I'myan', An Old French Cit.:. Once The Capital Of Picardy, And Now Of Ti~ Department Of Somme, On The Many-channelec.. Navigable Somme, 81 Miles North Of Paris Rail. Its Fortifications Have Been Turned Int: Charming Boulevards, But It Still Retains Its Ot: Citadel. The Cathedral Of Notre Dame Is ...

Amine
Amine (am'in; From Ammonia -i- Mr), A General Name For A Compound Derived From Ammonia By Substituting One Or More Of Its Hydrogen Atoms With An Equivalent Number Of Metallic Atoms Or Basic Organic Radicals (com Pare Amme). The Reactions Of The Amines De Pend Upon The Class To Which ...

Aminta
Aminta. The Uncontested Pre-eminence Of The Of Tasso In The Field Of Pas Toral Drama Is Due To The Unusual Manner In Which The Technical Problems Of The Genre Are Solved. The Stock Objection To The Pastoral As A Whole Is Its Artificiality, Its Failure To Correspond To Life — ...

Amistad
Amistad, I'mestad', Case, In United States History, One Of The Landmarks Of The Slavery Question. The Spanish Government, By Decree Of December 181; Forbade The Importa Tion Of Slaves From Africa Into Its Dominions After 30 Dec. 1820, On Penalty Of Confiscation Of The Slave-ship And Immediate Freeing Of The ...

Ammonia
Ammonia (supposed To Be So Called Be. Cause Originally Prepared From The Dung E Camels Near The Temple Of Ammon, In Egypt A Gaseous Compound Of Hydrogen And Nitrogen Having The Formula Nh3. It May Be Forme< In Small Quantities By The Direct Combination C. Its Elements Under The Influence ...

Ammonites
Ammonites, Am'mon-itz, Or "children Of Ammon." In The Cuneiform Inscriptions Their Land Is Called Bit-amman, As If Amman Were A Personal Name; But Genesis Says Ben-ammi, And Ammi Was Perhaps A Local God. Their Land Was In The Eastern Part Of The District Now Called Belka, On The Northeast Of ...

Ammonites_2
Ammonites, Am'o- Atez, The General Name For The Fossil Cephalopod Mollusks Of The Order Ammonoidea, Given Originally Because Of A Fancied Resemblance Of The Coiled Specimens First Known To A Ram's Horn, The Symbol Of Jupiter Ammon. Subsequently It Served As A Generic Name For A Group, But This Has ...

Ammunition
Ammunition. Ammunition Is Prepared The Various Arsenals And By Numerous Pri Ite Manufacturing Companies. Bags Of Serge, Enormous Number, Are Cut Out And Made, And Lied To Form The Cartridges For Large Ordnance. 1ags Or Tubes Of Paper Are Made And Filled To Onstitute Blank Cartridges For Small-arms; :bile The ...

Amos
Amos, A Prophet Of Ancient Israel, Lived In The Middle Period Of The 8th Century At His Home Was Tekoa, A Mountaintop Village About 12 Miles South Of Jerusalem, On The Border Of The Wilderness. The Prophet De Scribed Himself As A Sheep Raiser And A Tender Of Sycomore Fig ...

Amphibia
Amphibia, A Class Of Back-boned Creep Ing Animals Comprising The Newts, Frogs And Toads, Together With Several Extinct Groups, Which Is Classified Between The Fishes And The Reptiles. The Most Prominent Characteristic Is Indicated By The Name, Which Refers To The Fact That These Animals Are Provided With A Respira ...

Amphiteatrov
Amphiteatrov, Alexander Valen Tinovitch, Vä-len-te-nevich Am-fe-ta-i'trof, A Popular Russian Writer Of The Naturalistic School. He Was Born At Kaluga (central Rus Sia) Of Ecclesiastical In 1862, And Studied Music And Jurisprudence, The Latter At The Moscow University. His Literary Career Began In 1887, When His Light Verse And Prose Commenced ...

Amraphel
Amraphel, King Of Shinar (=sumer, The Sumerian Or South Babylonian Plain), A Monarch Mentioned In Gen. Xiv As An Ally Of Chedorlaomer, King Of Elam, In Subduing His Revolted Palestinian Vassals. Two Other Allied Kings Are Named: Arioch Of Ellasar (larsa, South Babylonia) And Tidal Of Goiim (trans Lated ((nations° ...

Amsterdam
Amsterdam, Bank Of. This Insti Tution Was Established In 1609, Much Upon The Plan Of The Bank Of Venice. Its Chief And At First Its Only Function Was That Of Affording Payment For Bills Of Exchange Drawn Upon The Merchants Of That Great Commercial Port, In Full-weighted Coins; The Coins ...

Amsterdam
Amsterdam, Formerly Called Am Stelredam, The Chief City Of The Nether Lands, Is Situated In The Province Of . North Holland, At The Influx Of The Amstel To The Ij Or Y (pronounced Eye), An Arm Of The Zuyder Zee. The City Is Built In The Shape Of A Semi ...

Amulets
Amulets. In General An Amulet May Be Described As A Charm Made Of Stone, Metal, Earthenware, Parchment, Paper Or Other Material, Having Incised Or Inscribed Magic Figures, Characters Or A Bare Inscription On It. The Amulet Is Used To Protect The Wearer Against Witchcraft, Sickness, Etc. It Has Been Usually ...

Amundsen
Amundsen, I'mfin-sin, Roald, Norwe Gian Explorer: B. Borge, Smaalenene, Norway, 16 July 1872. He Studied Medicine For Two Years At The University Of Christiania, Then Entered The Norwegian Naval Service, Went To Sea In 1893, And In 1897 Became First Officer On The Belgica, Of The Belgian South Polar Ex ...

Amur
Amur, Am-or', River Formed By The Junc Tion (about Lat. N. And Long. 121° E.) Of The Shilka And The Argun, Which Both Come From The Southwest. From The Junction The River Flows First Southeast And Then Northeast, And, After A Total Course Of 3,060 Miles, Falls Into The Sea ...

Amygdaloids
Amygdaloids, A-mig'da-loidz, Cellular Lavas, The Cavities Of Which Have Been Made By Expanding Steam Before The Lavas Completely Solidified, And Which Are Usually Filled With Secondary Minerals, Frequently The Zeolites (q.v.). The Cavities Are Called Amygdules And The Rocks Are Said To Be Amygdaloidal. Amyg Daloids Are Characteristically Extrusive. On ...

Amyraut
Amyraut, A'me-ro, Molse, French Cal Vinist Theologian: B. -in Bourgueil, In The Prov Ince Of Anjou, 1596; D. 1664. He Was Educated At Saumur, Where He Was Himself Afterward A Professor Of Divinity. By His Talents And Mod Eration He Soon Acquired Reputation And Influ Ence. In 1631 He Attended ...

Anabaptists
Anabaptists (greek),cive,again,a2irricetv To Baptize), Those Who Baptize Again Persons Admitted To Their Communion, When Such Con Verts Have Been Baptized In Their Infancy Or Have Been Merely Sprinkled And Not Immersed In Baptism Or Have Been Baptized In Any Way Without Being Capable Of Declaring The Doc Trines Which They ...

Anabasis
Anabasis. The Anabasis Is The Story In Which Xenophon Tells How The Ten Thousand (really Some 14,000) Greeks In The Year 401 Ac. Went Up With The Younger Cyrus To Help Him Oust His Brother Artaxerxes From The Per Sian Throne.
Anaconda
Anaconda, A South American Con Stricting Serpent, The Water-boa (eunectes Murinus). This Is The Largest Of The Boas (q.v.), And Like The Ceylonese Python (to Which The Name Originally Belonged), May Exceed 30 Feet In Length. It Inhabits The Swampy Forests Of The Amazonian Region, Where It Is Unpleas Antly ...

Anacreon
Anacreon. The Anacreon Of History Was Born At Teos In Asia Minor (hence Byron's In The 6th Century B.c. And, Driven Thence By The Persian Invasion, Lived At The Courts Of Polycrates Of Samos And Hipparchus, Tyrant Of Athens. He Sang In A Variety Of Lyric Measures Of Love And ...

Anaesthesia
Anaesthesia. In Its Simplest Sense This Term Means Simply Absence Of Feeling And Has Been Handed Down To Us From A Very Re Spectable Greek Antiquity. We Cannot Get Behind This. There May Be Anesthesia Of A Part Of An Organ Or Of A Special Sense Or Of The Entire ...

Analogy
Analogy, A Correspondence Of Between One Thing And Another. In Logic It Implies The Resemblance Of Rela Tions, A Meaning Given To The Word First By Di: Mathematicians. To Call A Country Which Has Sent Out Various Colonies The Mother Counts Implies An Analogy Between The Relation In Which It ...

Analysis
Analysis. The Act Of Decomposing Or Dissecting A Thing, Such As A Substance, A Proc Ess, Or A Logical Concept, Into Its Component Elements, And Of Exhibiting Its Structure. The Term Is Also Used For An Inventory Of The Re Sults Of This Dissection Such As We Often Find Preceding ...

Analysis Situs
Analysis Situs. Let A Geometrical Figure — Say A Closed Surface In Common Space —be Subjected To Any Change Of Form (bend Ing, Stretching, Etc.) That Does Not Involve Any Or An Extensible Rubber Model Will Suggest The Possibilities Of Such De Formation. Whatever Properties Of Our Figure Are Unalterable ...

Anarchism
Anarchism, A Theory Of Social Organi Zation, Numbering, It Is Said, About 1,000,000 Adherents. Its Doctrines Represent The Extreme Of Individualism. It Looks Upon All Law And Government As Invasive, The Twin Sources Whence Flow Nearly All The Evils Existent In So Ciety. It Therefore Advocates The Abolition Of All ...

Anathema
Anathema. Andreyev's Five-act Drama
Anatol
Anatol. Arthur Schnitzler, Past-master Of The Viennese Drama, Opened His Career As Playwright In 1893 With
Anatomy
Anatomy, Literally A Cutting Up; But Anatomy Usually Signifies The Special Study Of The Structure Of Organic Bodies, Morphology (q.v.) And Applies To Both Animals And Plants. Animal Morphology Is The Study Of Human Or Other Animal Forms, The Study Of The Relation Ship Between The Forms Constituting Compara Tive ...

Anatomy Of Melancholy
Anatomy Of Melancholy, The. Robert Burton Spent All His Mature Life At Ox Ford In Scholarly Retirement. He Was A Library Student, Not A Man Of Affairs, And Not A Prac Tical Physician But A Divine. He Conceived Of His Subject In His 'anatomy [i.e. Analysis Of] Melancholy' As A ...