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Legislation in Foreign Countries

agricultural, agriculture, education, scientific, laws and government

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The German government early recognized the importance of agricultural edu cation properly directed and encouraged by the state, and Germany was among the first nations of the world to establish agricultural colleges and experimental agricultural stations; and to carry on intense farming along scientific lines, her only serious competitors in this latter work being Belgium and Holland. Extensive investi gations were made, in Germany, by legislative act, into crop rotation; and laws were passed providing for detailed study of diseases inci dental to plant and animal life. The broad and scientific work done in this field inspired the governments of other countries to greater effort along these and other lines of agricul tural endeavor. The works of the German scientists, in the form of translations, 'were scattered broadcast over the entire scientific world by the agricultural societies, bureaus and agencies of the various governments and thus helped vastly the work of furthering the in terests of agriculture.

France.—After several years of very effect ive work, all the French government agencies engaged in the promotion of agricultural in terests in the country were unified in 1911, in one Department of Agriculture, with bureaus of General Administration, Agricultural In struction and Service, Waters and Forests, Breeding, Inspection, Agricultural Credit, and other co-operative agencies; and also a depart ment for the protection of horticultural interests from insect pests and plant diseases. In 1912 the pure food laws were revised and extended to cover practically all the interests of the country. The system of national agricultural education was reorganized and made vastly more efficient; and commissions were ordered to study and combat plant and animal parasites and to classify useful and injurious birds. The following year the Ministry of Agriculture was reorganized along thoroughly modern lines; and its Advisory Superior Council of Agricul tural Education authorized the expenditure of 12,000,000 francs for agricultural loans. Laws

were also passed to encourage reforestation and the conservation of mountain lands.

' Great Closely following Germany and France, Great Britain saw the importance of legislative help to agriculture, and her in fluence had begun to be felt in the colonies and at home. The relation of the Board of Agricul ture and Fisheries to that of Education had been clearly defined with reference to the pro motion of agricultural interests; and, in 1909, provision was made for "aiding and developing agricultural and rural industries by promoting scientific research, instruction and experiments in the methods and practices of agriculture." In the same year the Development and Road Improvement Funds Act gave much prominence to the aiding and development of agricultural and rural industries by encouraging research, agricultural education and experiment, the or ganization of co-operative enterprises and the extension of the provision of small holdings. The improvement of rural transportation, the development of forestry through teaching and experimentation, the afforestation of lands, reclamation and drainage were all provided for; and horse breeding was subsidized. In the fol lowing years, among much active legislative attention to agriculture, special care was given to the registration and sale of fertilizers, feed stuffs and other agricultural commodities, and the inspection of seeds and nursery plants of all kinds. A Commissioner of Agriculture was appointed for Wales in 1912. Numerous re strictive and directive measures relative to agri culture were put into force, owing to the war, for the period of its duration.

Cuba. The budget estimate for 1910 pro vided $112,200 for the maintenance of six agri cultural schools authorized for the several provinces by the Agricultural Act of 12 July 1909, since which time the island government has had a very active and efficient Department of Agriculture.

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