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N Y Albany

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ALBANY, N. Y., State capital and seat of Albany County, on the right (west) bank of the Hudson, 143 miles north of New York, 200 miles west of Boston, 297 miles east of Buffalo. Besides its political importance as the capital, its commercial and manufacturing status is high. For many years the start ing point of all the enormous eastern travel and traffic to the West, over the Erie Canal (q.v.), connecting it with the Great Lakes at Lake Erie, and now virtually the terminus of the new State Barge Canal System, it is an im portant port and the intersecting point of the great western as well as northern rail and water routes. With New York and the ocean it is connected by the imperial Hudson, of which it is the head of navigation for large steamers (smaller ones going on to Troy, six miles above). The Barge Canal is a great commer cial advantage and will soon be more so; while the Champlain-Barge Canal gives access not only to western Vermont, but to the Saint Law rence and the heart of Canada, with the foreign business centring at Montreal. It joins the western and northern traffic of the New York Central Railroad system (the Adirondack re gion, Vermont and Canada) and that of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad with the western traffic of central New England over the Boston & Albany branch of the New York Central road, the Fitchburg branch of the Boston & Maine Railroad and the Rutland Railroad.

Trade and The through freight lines now leave little transshipment to be done at. Albany, but the city still re mains an important passenger centre, and is the second largest express and the third largest mail transfer point in the United States. Commerce and industries are conservative and it retains much of both given it by its position in earlier times as a distributing point and terminal. In particular, the great Canadian and Adirondack forests to the north have made it an immense lumber port. Its manufactures are of wide and well-known importance, the greatest being iron goods,— foundries and stove works,— wood and brass; combined wood and metal, as carriages and wagons; brick, shirts, collars and cuffs, clothing and knit goods, shoes, flour, tobacco and cigars; and brewery products, billiard balls, dominoes, checkers and embossed blocks. The United States census (1914) reported 477 manufactur ing establishments of factory grade, employ ing 11,405 persons, of whom 9,399 were wage earners receiving a total of $5,652,000 in wages.

The capital employed aggregated $26,683,000 and the value of the output $25,289,000; the value added by manufacture being $13,864,000. In addition there are also the extensive car and locomotive shops of the New York Central Railroad.

The assessed valuation of real property in 1917 was $104,701,690 and the net public debt in 1910 was $2,458,644.08. The nual and municipal outlay is about $2,283,000, of which $492,286 was for schools, $244,885 for police and $250,610 for the fire department. There were four discount banks and trust com panies with aggregate capital of $3,000,000, and seven savings banks with a surplus (at market value) of $4,621,941, and amount of deposits of $83,973602. Tax rate (1917) per $100 was $2.56 (includes county and city taxes).

Interior.— The city has a river frontage of little over four miles and extends west about nine miles, from a narrow alluvial strip often flooded in the spring, over a steep rise to a sandy tableland 150 to 200 feet above tidewater, divided into four elevations and their corre sponding valleys. It has 97.5 miles of streets, paved with granite, asphalt and brick; gas and electric light plants; and about 42 miles of electric street railways within its limits, several suburban lines running to towns at a distance, centring in Albany: these lines reach Troy, Cohoes, Saratoga, Glens Falls, Lake George and Warrensburgh in the north, a distance of 71 miles; Sand Lake in the northeast, a distance of 15 miles; Sche nectady, Amsterdam, Johnstown and Glovers ville in the west, a distance of 50 miles, and Hudson in the south, a distance of 38 miles. The river is crossed by two railroad and foot bridges and one wagon bridge to Rensselaer (formerly Greenbush). The water supply is partly taken by gravity from an artificial lake five miles west, and partly pumped from the river, with a public filtration system. This plant covers 20 acres of ground, has eight filter-beds and filters 15,000,000 gallons of water daily. The parks, 11 in number, contain 402 acres; the largest is Washington Park of 90 acres with a lake 1,700 feet long. This park contains the celebrated 'Burns* statue by Charles Cal verly, and the bronze and rock fountain at the Rock of Horeb,)) by J. Massey Rhind, and the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. The three cemeteries cover 440 acres. President Arthur's tomb is in the handsome Rural cem etery of 280 acres, situated four miles north of the city.

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