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Organization and Functions

products, bureau, crops, agricultural, studies, soils and chemical

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ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS.

Office of the of pub lic business relating to the agricultural industry and management of department subdivisions; advisory supervision over government agricul tural experiment stations; control of quaran tine stations for imported cattle and of inter state cattle quarantine, including inspection of cattle ships; also carrying into effect the inter state game laws and those on importation of noxious animals, with authority to control that of other animals.

The Weather Records daily exist ing atmospheric conditions and formulates therefrom — for distribution — forecasts of probable weather during the succeeding 48 hours. It maintains a central office in Wash ington, and 197 subordinate stations in the United States and West Indies, whose work is supplemented by the services of 4,500 voluntary observers. It also receives daily telegraphic reports of observations in Canada, Mexico, the Azores and the western coast of Europe.

The Bureau of Animal Investi gates the nature and prevention of communi cable diseases dangerous to live stock, and takes measures for their extirpation; inspects live stock and their food products in interstate and foreign commerce, also the transport ves sels for exported and quarantine stations for imported animals; disseminates information on our dairy interests and their foreign markets; and reports on our animal industries and means of improving them.

The Bureau of Studies the chemical problems of agriculture; soils, fer tilizers and irrigation waters; agricultural products and industries; insecticides and fungi cides; foods of man and beast; raw materials, products and processes of agricultural-chemical industries; chemical relations which modify the results of environment—as soil, latitude; altitude and meteorological conditions—on agricultural products; inspects food products imported or for export; and examines quality, of materials used in road construction- The chemical problems of other departments are turned over to it. It has under its charge the inspection of foods and drugs, as authorized by the Pure Food Act.

The Bureau of Plant Studies plant life in relation to agriculture, including vegetable, pathological and physiological, bo, tanical, pomological, grass and forage plant in vestigations and experiments; has charge of experimental gardens and grounds, the Arling ton experimental farm, Congressional seed dis tribution, seed and plant introduction and culture experiments.

Forest Prepares and executes plans for conservative lumbering of wood lands, public or private; investigates trees and methods for planting, and gives practical assist ance to tree-planters; studies commercially val uable trees for their special uses in forestry, and the relations between forests and fire, grazing, lumbering, stream flow and irrigation; maintains a photographic laboratory and col lection and a library. On 1 July 1915 it had under its administration 162,773,280 acres of national forest land.

The Bureau of Studies physical and chemical properties of soils, and materials and methods of artificial fertilization, with their in fluence on the original soils; classifies and maps soils in agricultural districts to show the dis tribution of soil types for adaptability to cer tain crops and their management; investigates alkali problems and their relations to irrigation and seepage waters; reclamation of abandoned lands; studies tobacco soils and methods of cul tivation and curing, introduction of improved varieties and methods of exporting tobacco. The total area covered by detailed soil surveys in the United States from 1899, when the work was begun, to 30 June 1915 amounts to 369,928 square miles.

The Bureau of Crop and digests statistics of agricultural production; area annually sown to each of the leading crops, their condition on the first day of each month, the quantitative results at close of the crop year, and estimated farm value 1 Decem, ber. Supplementarily it collects periodical in formation on minor crops of importance, meadows and pastures, and the principal for eign crops. The stock of corn, wheat and oats on United States farms at certain regular fixed dates is estimated, with the proportion out of the county where grown; the number and value, by species, of animals on United States farms at the beginning of each year, and the annual losses from disease and ex posure i also the annual clip of wool and aver, age weight of fleeces, by States and Territories. It computes the world's production of the chief crops, by countries, and prices of principal ag ricultural products in various Uriited States markets.

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