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or Aden

exports, port, total, merchandise, 1914-15 and miles

ADEN, or a'den, Arabia, peninsula and town belonging to Great Britain, on the southwest coast, 105 miles east of the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, the entrance• to the Red Sea. The peninsula is a mass of volcanic rocks, five miles long from east to west, and rising to 1,776 feet. It is joined to the main land by a narrow, level and sandy isthmus. The town is on the eastern shore of the penin sula, stands in the crater of an extinct volcano and is surrounded by barren, cinder-like rocks. The main crater is known as the Devil's Punch-bowl. The climate of Aden is nor mally hot and dry with hot, sandy winds at certain seasons. The rainfall during 1916 was four inches, the average is three inches. The maximum temperature in 1916 was in July, and the minimum was in December. Nevertheless the climate is unusually healthy for the tropics. The Romans occupied it in the 1st century A.D. Till the discovery of the Cape route to India (1498) it was the chief mart of Asiatic produce for the Western na tions; but in 1838 it had sunk to be a village of 600 inhabitants. The increasing import ance of the Red Sea route gave Aden great value as a station for the British to hold; and in 1839 after a few hours' contest it fell into their hands. It is of high importance both in a mercantile and naval point of view, especially as a great coaling station ,• it has a garrison and strong fortifications. The pop ulation and resources of the place increased rapidly after 1838, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 gave it a great impetus. The affairs of the port are administered by a board known as the Aden Port Trust. The annual gross revenue of the settlement is about $2,279,417. For purposes of government Aden is included in Bombay Presidency of India and the currency and postage stamps are the same as those used in that country.

The rupee ($0.3244) is the currency unit. Whereas Aden of itself produces and con sumes but little, conditions at the port are important, as it is the market through which a large commercial district is best reached. Aden's only industries worthy of mention are the manufacture of salt and of cigarettes. The total sea-borne merchandise trade for the year 1915-16 was valued at $31,804,667 against $27,875,101 in 1914-15. According to the Aden Port Trust returns, imports of merchandise in 1915-16 were valued at $17,010,190, as com pared with $15,200,389 in 1914-15, and of treas ure $1,305,702, against $1,996,230, respectively. Exports of merchandise increased in value from $12,674,712 in 1914-15 to $14,794,477 in 1915-16, but those of treasure declined from $2,601,368 to $1,890,934. Exports to the United States reached a value of $2,427,764, an in crease of approximately 50 per cent over the exports for the preceding year and formed approximately 15 per cent of the total exports. Imports of American goods reached $2,595,600, practically double that for. the preceding year. Cotton manufactures, grain and pulse, coffee, hides and skins, tobacco and coal are the chief articles imported. Exports include principally cotton manufactures, skins, coffee, grain, to bacco, spices, sugar, gums and salt. It is a telegraphic station on the cable between Suez and Bombay, and on the line to Zanzibar and the Cape. To provide for its growing popula tion, a considerable territory on the mainland was acquired and added to the peninsula, the total area (including the island of Perim) being about square miles. Population, about 46,000.