ANAM, or ANNAM, an Asiatic country on the east side of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, along the China Sea, about 850 miles long, with a breadth varying from over 400 miles in the north to 100 in the middle. It is composed of Tonquin or Tongking in the north and Cochin China and Chiampa in the south. The area is 52.100 square miles, and the population (1913) 4,702,446.
Its coast is much indented, affording many fine harbors, and a mountain range extends its entire length. The Mehong, the principal river, is the boundary between Anam and Siam and is navigated by steamboats. The capital and largest city is Hue. Rice, cinnamon, sugar cane, coffee, tea, tobacco, the areca nut, mul berry, betel, manioc, bamboo, caoutchouc, car damons, dye, medicinal plants and cotton are the chief productions, though silk is manufac tured to some extent and fine woods are ex ported. Iron, copper, zinc and gold are found. The mines are worked by natives. Coal mines are situated at Nongson. Cattle-rearing is be coming important; in 1916 there were 215,000 head of cattle in the country. The chief imports are cotton-yarn, cottons, tea, petroleum, paper goods and tobacco; chief exports are sugar, rice, cotton and silk tissues and paper. The government is a monarchy, the king being nom inally assisted by a council of six, but French influence predominates. The King Than Thai, who succeeded to the throne in 1889, abdicated in accordance with the wishes of the French government, in favor of his second son, Duy Tan, b. 1900, who is under the control of a Council of Regency. The ports of Tourane, Qui-Nhon and Xuan-Day are open to European • commerce and the customs revenue conceded to France. French troops occupy part of the cita
del of Hue, the capital (Pop. 60,611). Bin Dinh, the largest town, has 74,400 inhabitants. Anamite functionaries, under the control of the French government, administer all the internal affairs of Anam.
The inhabitants are from two races, the Mountain Mois and the Anamese proper, and generally under the middle size and less robust than the surrounding peoples. Their language is monosyllabic and is connected with the Chinese. The religion of the majority is Bud dhism, but the educated classes hold the doc trines of Confucius; besides which there are 420,000 Roman Catholics. Anam was conquered by the Chinese in 214 a.c, but in 1428 A.D. com pletely won its independence. The French began to interfere actively in its affairs in 1847 on the plea of protecting the native Christians. By the treaties of 1862 and 1867 they obtained the southern and most productive part of Cochin China, subsequently known as French Cochin China; and in 1874 they obtained large powers over Tonquin. By the treaty of 1884, ratified at Hui, 1886, Anam was declared a French protectorate. Consult Barral,
Colonisation francaise au Tonkin et en Annam> (Paris 1899); Dumontier, (Les symboles chez les An namites> (ib. 1890); Fourneseau,
(ib. 1895); Hannah,
History of Eastern Asia> (New York 1900); Jammes,
pays annamit0 (Paris 1898); Leraye,