ANGORA, or ENGOUR, Asiatic Turkey.
(the ancient ANCYRA), a' town 215 miles east of Constantinople, with which there is now rail way communication. It is the capital of the vilayet of the same name. It has ruinous walls, and there are some remains of Byzantine archi tecture belonging to the ancient city, and a few relics of earlier times, both Greek and Roman. Among the latter are the remnants of the Monumentum Ancyranum, raised in honor of the Emperor Augustus, who much embellished the ancient city. Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, a Gallic tribe who settled in Ga latia in the 3d century B.C., and was the capital of the Roman province of Galatia after 25 B.C. In the Byzantine period it was a place of great importance, was captured by Persians and Arabs; next fell under the sway of the Seljuk Turks, was held by the Crusaders for 18 years, and passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360. A great battle between the Turks and Tatars was fought near Angora in 1402, in which the latter were victorious. It was reconquered by the Turks in 1415, and has since remained in their possession. It was taken by the Egyptians
under Ibrahim Pasha in 1832. Angora is cele brated for the long-haired goats bred in its vicinity called by the Arabs the chamal goat, meaning *silky or soft.'" The fineness of the hair seems to depend on some peculiarity of the atmosphere, for it is remarked that the cats, dogs and other animals of the country have exceedingly long and fine hair, and that they all lose much of their distinctive characteristic when taken from their native haunts. Goat's hair forms an important export; other exports being goats' skins, mohair, grain, dye-s principally madder, and yellow berries; 111253: tragacanth and other gums; also honey ace wax. Mohair cloth is manufactured_ Brits1 manufactures are imported to some cum Estimated pop. 35,000, of whom 18,000 ar: Moslems, 9,400 Roman Catholic Armenians an: 400 Jews. Consult Wright, 'Cities of Pan! (Boston 1905).