d. Other dynamites.— Americanite (nitrol glycerin and methyl alcohol) ; Castellano's pow der (nitroglycerin, fibrous material, earth and nitrobenzine); cerberite (nitroglycerin, wood oil, nitrobenzine, woodpulp and sodium nitrate); Engle's powder (nitroglycerin, am moniacal salts, saltpetre, pyroxylin, nitro starch, nitromannite, nitrobenzine, and water glass) ; glukodine (nitroglycerin and nitro saccharose) ; perunite or terrorite (nitrogly cerin, nitromethyl, nitroethyl and pyroxylin); thunder powder (nitroglycerin and nitroglu cose).
e. Low freezing dynamites.— Ordinary dy namites freeze at temperatures prevailing in the northern and middle Atlantic states from October to May. When frozen they are diffi cult to detonate and are therefore not only inefficient but dangerous and particularly when being thawed. To overcome this defect nitro substitution compounds such as some of the nitrotoluenes and, more recently, esters such as nitrated di- and polyglycerins are introduced as components of dynamite. These are styled L. F. dynamites and put upon the market with a designating term of this kind.
C. Organic nitrate mixtures other than Casteau's explosive (nitrodextrine and ammonium nitrate) ; Cooppal's powders (resinous bodies, barium nitrate, and nitrocellu lose); diflamyr (metallic nitrates and nitro cellulose) ; flamminore (collodion cotton, am monium sulphate and ammonium nitrate) ; grenee powder (paraffin; agar-agar, nitorcellu lose, potassium nitrate, and barium nitrate) ; explosive P, (nitrocellulose and ammonium nitrate) ; potenite and tonite (guncotton and barium nitrate).
(5.) Nitrosubstitution compounds and mix tures containing Compounds: Nitro benzenes; nitrocresols; nitrocumenes; nitro naphthalenes; nitronaphthols; nitrophenols; nitroresorcinols; nitrotoluenes; picric acid or caroazotic acid (trinitrophenol) i picramic acid; styphnic acid or oxypicric acid (tutroresor cinol) ; trinitrotoluene (T. N. T.); trotyl; tetra nitraniline ; tetranitronuthyl-aniline (tetryl, tetralite).
A. Mixtures containing nitrosubstitution Abel's powder; ammonite: amvis; bellite; boritine; Borlinetto's powder; Boyd's powder; bronolithe; Brugere's powder; ex plosive A; explosive C; explosive N; cre tnonites; Du Bois-Raymond's powders; du plexite ; ecrasite; emmensite; Faversham 'pow ders; Favier explosives; ferrifractor ; Fontaine's powder; Gathhurst powder; gdbite• Geserick's powder; Girard's powder; hellhoffite; Hill's powder; Johnite; joveite; kinetite; lyddite; macarite; !infinite; oxonite; plastrotyl; rack arock; roburite; romite; securite; streetites; triplastite; Volney powders.
(6) Fulminates.—Compounds: Copper and silver, acetylides; diazonbenzine nitrate; fulmi nating gold (auramine); fulminating silver (argentamine); mercuric fulminate; mercuric triazotate; lead and nitrogen chloride (chlora tnide) ; nitrogen iodide (iodamide) • silver ful minate; and triazoic acid, also called hydrazoic acid and azoimide.
In addition to these classes there are seven groups of explosives which have received such widespread notice as to merit especial mention here, though the members of each may all be and many of them are included in the classes given above. These groups are Sprengel ex plosives, safety or flaineless explosives, per mined explosives, and smokeless powders, shell explosives and grenade and bomb explosives.
Sprengel Explosives.— These explosives were invented by Dr. Hermann Sprengel, 1873, and he advocated their use because of their safety, as they are non-explosive during manu facture, storage and transportation, but are very powerful explosives when prepared and de.
tonated. His plan was to employ mixtures of combustible and oxidizing substances, which should be kept separate until needed for use, the bodies to be employed in the compounding of the explosives being either all liquid or part liquid and part solid, for by taking advantage of the liquid state speedy and intimate mixing could be realized and the explosives could be compounded on the spot and at the time they were wanted for use. Among the oxidizing agents proposed were the nitrates and chlorates, which are solids, and nitric acid and nitrogen tetroxide, which are liquids. Among the com bustible substances were the nitrosubstitution bodies, carbon disulphite and petroleum. A conspicuous example of a Sprengel explosive is rackarock, which was used in blowing up Flood Rock in Hell Gate, N. Y., and which may be made by pouring mononitrobenzine upon pot assium chlorate crystals. Other examples are some forms of emmensite; explosive A; hell hoffite; oxonite; panclasite; and Parone's ex plosive.