GREENE, Nathanael, American soldier: b. Patawomut, Warwick County, R. I., 7 Aug. 1742; d. Mulberry Grove, Ga., 19 June 1786. His father, a leading preacher among the Quakers, was the owner of an anchor forge and a grist mill. He was brought up as a Quaker, and trained from childhood to work on the farm and at the forge. Resolute perseverance in the midst of many obstacles gave him in the course of time a more than ordinary familiarity with ancient and Englishhistory, geometry, law and moral and political science. In 1770 he was chosen a member of the general assembly for Coventry, whither he had .removed to take charge of another forge; and from that time continued to take an active part in public affairs. He was one of the first to engage in the military exercises which prepared the way for resistance to the encroachments of the mother country, and this open renunciation of theprinciples of his sect was promptly followed by formal excommunication. In 1774 he joined the Kentish guards as a private; in July of the same year was married to Catharine Littlefield of Block Island, and in 1775 was appointed by the general assembly to command as brigadier general the Rhode . Island contingent to the army before Boston. He joined his command at Roxbury on 3 June and from that time re mained in active service without a day's fur lough till final disbandment of the army in 1783. At Boston his brigade was distinguished by its discipline, and after the evacuation he was entrusted with the defense of Long Is land. He distinguished 'himself in the battle of Harlem Heights, later commanded a portion of Washington's army near Fort Washington on the Hudson, and in September he was made major-general and appointed to the command in New Jersey. At Trenton he led the division with which Washington marched in person, and, with Knox, was for following up the advantages of that brilliant surprise by advancing directly upon the other detachments of the enemy. He took an equal part in the battle of Princeton, and was entrusted by Washington during the winter with a communication to Congress. At the Brandywine he commanded a division, and by a rapid march and successful stand preserved the army from utter destruc tion. At Germantown he commanded the left wing which penetrated into the village. On 2 March 1778, he accepted the office of quarter master-general, which he held till August 1780, fulfilling its arduous complicated duties in such a manner as to call forth from Washing ton when he left it the declaration ethat the States have had in you, in my opinion, an able, upright and diligent servant.'" On 23 June 1780 he
checked with two brigades and a small body of militia the advance of a corps of 5,000 of the enemy in the brilliant battle Springfield. He was in command of the army during Washing ton's visit to Hartford in September 1780, when Arnold's conspiracy was discovered, and sat as president of the court of inquiry upon Major Andre. In October of the same year, he was appointed to the command of the Southern army, which be found on his arrival, in Decem ber, in a state of utter disorganization and want. He soon advanced to a well-chosen camp on the banks of the Pedee, and began a series of operations which in less than a year stripped the enemy of nearly all their hard-won con quests in the two Carolinas and Georgia, and shut them up within the narrow limits of Charleston and its immediate neighborhood. Among the events of this active year were the battle of the Cowpens, won by General Morgan at the opening of the campaign; a brilliant re treat from the Catawba to the Dan; the battle of Guilford Court House in which he lost the field, but gained the end for which he fought; the pursuit of Cornwallis to the Deep River; the daring advance into South Carolina; the battle of Hoblcirlc's Hill, a second defeat followed by the results of, victory; the siege of Fort Ninety six, raised by the advance of Lord Rawdon, but followed by the immediate evacuation of the post and the retreat of the enemy toward the west; the drawn battle of Eutaw Springs, and the advance upon Dorchester, spoken of by Washington as another "proof of the peculiar abilities" of General Greene. Congress presented him with a medal for services in the battle of Eutaw Springs, and North and South Carolina and Georgia made him valuable grants of property. He removed to the estate of Mul berry Grove, on the Savannah River, Georgia, where he died of sunstroke. Consult G. W. Greene, 'Life of Nathanael Greene' (1867.-71) ; F. V. Greene, 'General Nathanael Greene,' (in 'Great Commanders,' 1893) ' • McCrady, 'History of South Carolina in the Revolution' (1902).